Display of human remains in Rwanda's genocide memorial sites : who is reaping from the atrocious tragedy ? Charles KM Kambanda,PhD.



Over 17 years after the 1994 Rwanda Genocide, close to a million human remains lay, unburied, in dreadful conditions in the different memorial genocide sites of the country. The government is categorical that the human remains are “tangible proof” for people who deny Tutsi genocide. Rwandan government insists that the international community did not intervene to stop Rwandan genocide. The president of Rwanda, Paul Kagame, does not mince words “the genocide memorial sites and the human remains therein are proof that world leaders failed to prevent and/or stop Tutsi genocide”. However, government critics perceive of the human remains in the country’s genocide memorial sites as a tool for President Kagame’s government to instill permanent fear, trauma and oppression among Rwandans. Rwanda’s opposition leaders argue that President Kagame banks on the countless human skeletons in genocide memorial sites to appeal for sympathy, donations and aid from world leaders and the international community. Government opponents allege that President Kagame’s government trades on the human remains to justify its crackdown on political opponents, closing political space, paralyzing critical media and gross violation of human rights. For many people, exposure of human remains in memorial genocide sites is a political apparatus for President Kagame’s self aggrandizement and preservation of his dictatorship.


General appearance of human remains in the country’s genocide memorial sites.
General appearance of human remains in the country’s genocide memorial sites.


Qualitative controversy over the human remains in genocide memorial sites

Rwandan genocide is, by far, the most controversial social phenomenon in the country’s recent history. First, the government and its critics agree that there was genocide in Rwanda. However, the two sides differ on who were the perpetrators and victims. Second, the two sides differ on terminology of the genocide; the government calls it “Tutsi genocide” while government critics call it “Rwandan genocide”. There are, basically, two theories of Rwandan genocide; single and double fold theories. The single-fold theory holds that genocide was perpetrated by Hutu extremists; the victims of genocide were Tutsi only. The double theory is that there are extremists in all the country’s ethnic groups – Tutsi, Twa and Hutu. For the double genocide theorists, some Tutsi extremists and some Hutu and Twa extremists perpetrated genocide against Rwandans. The government, which is predominately Tutsi, is relentless that the Hutu and Twa were not victims of genocide. The opposition and some scholars are vigorous on the double theory of Rwandan genocide. A Spanish court has indicted close to 40 officials in President Kagame’s government for genocide and other international crimes against the Hutu and Spanish expatriates who were in Rwanda during the country’s genocide. The Spanish court did not indict President Paul Kagame because he enjoys Presidential Immunity under international law. A French Judge is investigating President Kagame and a number of his senior officers for similar charges. Government critics argue that until President Paul Kagame and/or his government accepts responsibility for the extermination of the Hutu and Twa, Rwanda cannot achieve sustainable peace, development and reconciliation. The predominately Tutsi government punishes double genocide theorists with, up to, 30 years jail term.


Quantitative controversy over human remains in the genocide memorial sites

There is no dispute over the accuracy of population statistics before the Rwanda’s ethnic-based civil war that culminated into the 1994 genocide. Rwanda’s population stood at about 8,000,000 million people. 14% were Tutsi (1, 120, 000), 1% Twa (80,000) and 85% Hutu (6,800,000). The human remains in the country’s genocide memorial sites are close to a million. The government of Rwanda says over 1,000,000 Tutsi perished in the Tutsi genocide. Tutsi survivors of genocide and the National association of the Tutsi genocide survivors have already accorded decent burial to most Tutsi genocide victims.


Two years after the 1994 genocide, the Tutsi survivors of genocide, who were beneficiaries of the Tutsi genocide survivors’ fund, were around 610,000.  The national association of the Tutsi survivors of genocide carried out a door-to-door survey of the Tutsi victims of genocide in 2000. The survey put the number of Tutsi victims at about 400,000. This report was never made public.


The Hutu opposition leaders, some liberal Tutsi and researchers calculate the number of Tutsi victims of genocide by subtracting from the total Tutsi population the number of the Tutsi genocide survivors (1,120,000 – 610,000). Government critics estimate that about 450,000 Tutsi victims have been accorded decent burial. Most government critics conclude that about 510,000 of the human remains are Tutsi while the rest are Hutu and Twa. Most Hutu and Twa who were allegedly exterminated by President Kagame’s rebels, critics argue, still lay in mass graves.


Is President Paul Kagame a suspect?

Widespread incidents of broad-day-light extermination of the Hutu and Twa by the then predominantly Tutsi rebel are well documented. President Paul Kagame was the top commander of the rebels. All exhumed human remains in Rwanda are said to be of Tutsi. President Kagame and his government have not accounted for the alleged mass graves or remains of the Hutu victims. For example, On April 22, 1994, President Kagame’s rebels allegedly massacred the Hutu refugees from the Internally Displaced Persons’ camp in Kibeho. The dead were, allegedly, between 25,000 and 30,000. Other alleged broad-day-light massacres of the Hutu and Twa by Paul Kagame rebels took place at, inter alia, Amahoro stadium in 1994, Huye Stadium in April 1994, Kabgayi Catholic Parish and Nzuki in June 1994. A Spanish Court, while indicting Kagame’s top military officials for war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide and terrorism, also emphasized mass graves into which RPA/F dumped their Hutu victims.  Are some of the human remains in the genocide memorial sites Hutu victims of President Kagame’s alleged crimes?



The April, 22nd 1994 Hutu massacres, allegedly, by President Paul Kagame’s then rebels in Kibeho.  Are these remains in the Tutsi genocide memorial sites?
The April, 22nd 1994 Hutu massacres, allegedly, by President Paul Kagame’s then rebels in Kibeho. Are these remains in the Tutsi genocide memorial sites?


The right to decent burial

Common law recognizes decent burial as a fundamental right. The dead have a right to remain silent (rest undisturbed). Civilized nations and communities accord great respect to dead bodies. Burial is compulsory, within a reasonable period of time, no matter the social status or individual traits of the deceased. Almost all world cultures treat their dead with reverence. In African tradition, decent burial is a sacred rite the living owes to the dead. It is a widespread African cultural belief that the ghost of an unburied person will haunt the living relations and cause omens or misfortunes to the entire community. Among African warriors, a dead body is a neutral party. Each side has a duty to bury dead warriors, regardless of whether or not the dead were enemy warriors.  Decent burial and/or disposition of the remains of enemy combatants in contemporary warfare are regulated under international law. Rule 115 of Customary International Humanitarian Law provides that “the dead must be disposed of in a respectful manner and their graves respected and properly marked”. If even enemies must be buried, why are the victims of Rwandan Genocide, whether Hutu, Twa or Tutsi not buried? What rational justification is there for the government to hold, unburied, the remains of the innocent victims of the country’s ethnic conflict?


No persons owns a dead body

Burial right per se is a sacred trust for those who have an interest in the remains. However, those with interest in the remains do not own the dead body. Private persons and governments do not have a right to keep dead bodies, beyond reasonable time, for their own interests. It is unethical for any person or government to use people’s remains for any legitimate or illegitimate purpose. Parading human remains for seventeen (17) years, after the genocide, for whatever legitimate or illegitimate purpose is inconsistent with the great duty Rwandan community has to honor and respect the victims of the genocide.


Exposed human remains are a health hazard

For 17 years now, Rwandan genocide memorial sites are a health hazard for the neighboring communities. The psychological effects of having to view decomposing human skulls, day in and out, for over 17 years, cannot be overstated. Tourists and Rwandans who visit the genocide memorial sites are vulnerable to secondary trauma. Institutionalizing violence, revenge, hatred and disrespect for human life are but a logical sequence of displaying human remains in the country’s genocide memorial sites. These vices are, certainly, not an asset for Rwanda’s reconciliation and healing process.


The way forward

There is no justification for exposure of human remains for such long period of time. Parading human skulls/skeletons in genocide memorial sites is perilous to Rwandans’ physical and psychological health. Notwithstanding the victim’s ethnic group, all victims of Rwanda’s tragedy have a right to decent burial. The Tutsi, Hutu and Twa survivors of Rwandan atrocities; genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and terrorism deserve equal treatment. Each side’s story ought to be legitimized. Victims of all these crimes deserve justice. The government of Rwanda has a legal duty and moral responsibility to investigate and prosecute, without favor, all alleged perpetrators of war crimes, crimes against humanity and terrorism and genocide against the Hutu, Twa and Tutsi. The Hutu and Twa, like their counterparts the Tutsi, ought to have a chance to bury, commemorate and mourn their relations who were allegedly exterminated by some officials of the current government.



Commentaires : 158
  • #158

    NDAYAMBAJE Robert (dimanche, 31 juillet 2016 19:37)

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  • #154

    inovator (vendredi, 03 juin 2011 04:05)

    From the dust where you came from it is where you will go back after death God told Adam and have peaceful rest there. Does RPF knows that? are the remains of our beloved parents and relatives goods(products) in an exhibition for ever. Please RPF,think hard to find an other business or new product! not human remains.

  • #153

    Munyakuri (mercredi, 01 juin 2011 15:04)

    I am continuing from where i left saying that few days ago a secondary school here in kgl decided to tour the gusozi memorial. The organizers of the tour thought and well dellieved that it was to remind students @ the school af the tragic event which unfolded on rwanda in1994 . They just desregarde or miss used thier psucological knowledge on the negative impact the visit would have on youg students . After the visit the school is struggling to return to narmalcy due to a big number of traumatism

  • #152

    MunyaKuri (mercredi, 01 juin 2011 14:54)

    The above indepth analysis demonstrate aun biassed uncompromizing as well as a well resaerched article . The learned doctor( as then he is ) clearly showed us that while some in kigali regime believes that exposing human remains is the best way to perpetuate the memory of genocide , they are actualy damaging the society which they believe they are bulding . It seems that the learned doctor knew well in advence and acted as a worning to the unlistenable dictataship ast week disregarding his advice

  • #151

    @Kabarebe (lundi, 30 mai 2011 15:03)

    Kabarebe, don't be stupid in such way. Why always RPF try to escape or run away once it is told the reality or truth? Do u have any legitimacy to call Prof. Kambanda mud? hahah!!I think u re the one to be mud bcs u don't want to hear the truth. Kambanda is a Man of all the times!!!!

  • #150

    Kabarabe (lundi, 30 mai 2011 04:13)

    I am not Kabarebe! Ok. I am Kabarabe. Prof.Kambanda you are defending is not clean. I am sure he is RNC member. He is also sympathetic, if not a member of FDRL. He is also a genocide denier. The country educated him and this is all he has to pay back. No wonder, he refused to participate in government for all the time he was in Rwanda. He is a mad guy

  • #149

    Yankurije (lundi, 30 mai 2011 02:32)

    FPR abanyabwenge bayihagurukiye! ese ubundi mwabaga hehe kare kose?ntarirarenga ariko.

    Inyandiko yandikanye ubuhanga nubwenge, ureke abapfa guhubuka gusa!abandi bahoze ari abarimu ba UNR barihe? ko bo batagira icyo bavuga, kandi ko ari benshi bangajwe na FPR, sinvuga abari munkuta enyi, ndavuga abagize amahirwe yo gucika icumu ubu bakaba bari ishyanga! mudufashe kwigobotora iyi ngoma ya sekibi kagame nabambari be. Harakabaho le prophete, nabapadiri bayishinze, batuma ibitekerezo byiza nkibi bitugeraho.

    Mbisabire, iyi nyandiko se ntimwayishyira mu kinyarwanda, ko hari benshi batunvise ikirimo?


  • #148

    Urugiyekera (dimanche, 29 mai 2011 17:31)

    Paul KAGAME fait face à une décision fatidique : soit ne pas reconcilier les Rwandais et voir son régime s'imploser, soit les reconcilier et se retrouver mains et pieds liés en prisons pour ses crimes innomables.

  • #147

    Munyakuri (dimanche, 29 mai 2011 08:50)

    True doc u are right

  • #146

    wowe #140 (samedi, 28 mai 2011 15:10)

    gumaguma, wowe #140 banza wigishe ba stupid peoples bahorana ibitekerezo byo kwangana naho ubuturetse kuko ibyodukora turabizi, kandi namwe turabazi so! ntacyo mwatubeshya.

  • #145

    @Kabarebe (samedi, 28 mai 2011 08:18)

    Kabarebe, for this time, it's no longer a matter of sharing power with genocidaires, terrorists, serial killers and so on. I can't share power with the evils. Kagame is an Evil, so u get my position. Why sharing power with evils while there good people with good faith? Prof. Kambanda is among those people. He didn't refuse to serve his country as you think because even he is contributing a lot with this article. Then I want you to explain explicitely what you call patriotism. Is patriotism keeping silence while your country is getting destroyed? At the contrary, I find him more patriotic because he is telling things the way they are and independently.

  • #144

    Kabarabe (samedi, 28 mai 2011 06:31)

    If Kagame accepted to share power with you, are you ready to work with him? I mean the oposition? Dr. Kambanda refused to serve his country. He was asked to participate in different activites in Rwanda. He refused. Is Professor Kambanda Patriotic?

  • #143

    nationalist (samedi, 28 mai 2011 00:09)

    Roger #135 yanditse ibintu byiza bishobora gufasha abanyarwanda bafashe gusa umwanya wo kubitekerezaho.thanks 4 making a difference coz most of the commentators seem to be heartless and unrealistic.tnx again 4 being u!!!!

  • #142

    ukuri (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 22:56)

    @Petero #138:

    Kabare ni musaza wa Kanjogera. Aba bombi se ni Rwakagara. Urabona ko nta kosa ririmo!

  • #141

    Bravo Kambanda (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 21:51)

    Because of this article is full of truth and wisdom, look at the way it has attracted readers. Prof. Kambanda, we need educated people like. Big up!!!

  • #140

    Wowe @nsubize #123 (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 21:40)

    Wowe usubije @123 ntaho mutaniye urabona ko munganya ubwenge, kabishywe muri kuganira. Then what difference are u making? Some one is posting a stupid idea and then you are repplying with a stupid answer. Ibyo urimo kwigamba ngo 2,800,000 z'abantu bapfuye ngo ninde wabihombeyemo i think u re brainless. Aho wababajwe nuko nta butabera bwabaye urunva ushyize imbere guhangana muntambara uwo wabonye intambara isiga amahoro ninde? Urishimira inzirakarengane ko zapfuye kandi zishyura inda mbi, ubwikunde, irari ry'ubutegetsi, ingengabitekerezo mbi nkiyo yawe, nibindi. Only making a difference will show You, Kagame and others like him that they are meaningless.

  • #139

    kayijuka (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 21:17)

    yewe ntukite abahutu ngo ni ibigoryi uzasubiremo amateka y'abatutsi urebe intambara yo ku Rucunshu wibuke uko baraguriye kigeri Rwabugili,Urebe mu Ntwali zabayeho za bahutu nka ba Muvunyi wa karema karemajwe ni byuma, Bisangwa,n'abandi....icyo nakubwira abahutu batangiye iyindi paje nshyashya bafatanyije na batutsi modelés

  • #138

    Petero (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 21:05)

    Genealogie et enfance de Kagame.Je suis d,accord avec vous mais je ne vois pas ou figure le nom Kabare mwene rwa Kagara?Erreur de votre part ou la mienne?J,attends votre prompte reponse et merci.

  • #137

    kwikirigita (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 20:33)

    Hari abantu bahora bijijisha bibwira ko ntawe ushobora gutekereza neza.Mbwira nawe umuntu ukibwira ko azasubiza abantu i Buganda, ngo aho mu mashyamba ya Congo ngo bararwana na Leta ya Kigali kuva 1994, abandi bakarwanira ku km ibihumbi abandi bakarwanisha amagambo n'ibindi. Sha nyamara aba bantu bafite technology

  • #136

    nsubize #123 (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 20:05)

    ikigaragara nuko #123 yirengagiza ibigoryi ibyaribyo kandi abizi, urugero, hera IBURUNDI urebe ukuntu NKURUNZIZA na RWASA barimo kuryana kandi bose arabahutu, icyakabiri, abahutu bamaze gupfa niba ntibeshya baragera kuri 2,800 000 ubariyemo nabakongo,none urumva uwahombye arinde? ntukibeshye ko nabo ba KAYUMBA bababeshya ngo murikumwe bakorana namwe uretse kubategeka gusa ,ndumva ubizi neza, none ngo urashyaka gusubiza abantu IBUGANDE? SHA WENDA NTUZAGYERA NA kabuga

  • #135

    Roger (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 19:40)

    Uranyumva nabi,kandi uranyibeshya ho kuko jye ntashobora gutekerereza mu mirambo ngo niho hazava amahoro.Jye nibwira ko umunsi abantu bazamenya ko babaho kuko abandi bariho, ukamenya ko hakoreshejwe ingufu z'abantu batagira ingano kugira ngo: ari inzu utuye mo, imyenda wambara, ibyo urya, imihanda ujyenda mo n'ibindi byinshi cyane wamenya ushatse kubitekereza ho, uzamenya ko umuntu akenewe kugira ngo undi abeho.Urabaza ngo twiyemerana iki?nanjye nakubazo ngo: uragereranya n' iki mwasize gihagaze, n'ibiriho ubu?Cyakora jye nzi n'insyo n'ingasire mwazihunganye, n'amazi mugasiga muyarunze mo imirambo ngo n'usiye atazabona ayo kunywa.Nyamara s'uku twagombye gushaka umuti.to#134

  • #134

    Tôt ou tard Roger!!!! (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 18:03)

    Ni byiza ko wafashe isomo KAREGEYA yabahaye mais wibagiwe uwo yabibwiye. KAGAME niwe wikirigita akisetsa si je m'en souviens bien! Peu importe mwe muri nyuma ye murakoma amashyi gusa ntagutekereza [birababaje cyane!!!!], niba uri butegetsi bwabahumwe amaso, niba ari amaraso y'abanyarwanda yabarenze, nshaka icyo mwiyemerana nkakibura. Niki mwageje ku banyarwanda cyiza vraiment wavuga? Usibye kubica, kurya utwabo...n'ibindi!!! Ukwiye kumenya ko ari question du temps gusa, tuzabakanira urubakwiye, j'en suis sûr, nkandi ndabikorera kimwe nk'abandi baso bifuza u Rwanda buri wese yishyira akizana! Igikomeye si ukubikora, ahubwo kubitekereza!!!
    Imana ikurinde!

  • #133

    Roger (vendredi, 27 mai 2011)

    Ariko mwaretse twese tukirebera mu ndorerwamo, buri wese akisuzuma bityo tugashaka umuti.Uwavunitse akaguru ntatange akaboko ngo abe ariko bavura kandi harwaye akaguru.Jye nzashyigikira uwo ariwe wese wifuza u Rwanda rw'amahoro ku bana barwo bose.

  • #132

    @Roger (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 17:01)

    @Roger, kubera kumenyera rero kw'Agaca ko gatwara imishwi y'inkoko zigasakuza bikarangirira aho, kagera ho kagatandukira kakajya no gufata iya dendo cg imbata, uko bikagendekera byabara umupfu. Kandi ngirango uri kubona ibimenyetso muri iki gihe.

    Ibihe byiza

  • #131

    Roger (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 16:01)


  • #130

    Tebuka (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 15:51)

    Abazi ibintu n'ibindi muzambarire ubanza hari ahantu hasigaye ishuri ry'ibitutsi mu gihugu cyacu. umuntu akaza nk'iya Gatera nta gishya nta gitekerezo agahita arunda ibitutsi aho...ariko nibyo uru rubuga iyo rushingwa hari abari kubura aho bakorera stage y'ibyo bize mu gutukana...wenda batubwire ibyiza bya Leta yacu, cg se banayinenge dore ko udakora ni we udakosa.
    Mu Rwanda dukwiye kwisubiraho tugatekereza kuri aya magambo...ese koko twihesha agaciro mu byo dukora...ese turangwa n'ukuri mu byo tuvuga cg turishushanya. Duhane amahoro buri wese yishakire uko yaaramuka dore ko n'ubundi ntawe utunze undi ni ubyibeshya ni uko hari icyo uba wamukoreye...

  • #129

    Reaction to message 127 (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 15:33)

    You need to know that Kagame has to deal with many issues and therefore should get 16,000€ per month or better payed than belgium PM.

    He needs funds to kill his opponents or track them, he needs money to buy private jets or air planes and this helps a lot in Rwanda as spme of his friens can use them to travel worldwide.

  • #128

    nzahaha (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 15:27)

    tomasi,rudakemwa muri uducucu,tumwe twabuze iyo twerekeza,twapfuye umutima,muragaswera ba nyoko.

  • #127

    Benefiting (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 15:00)

    The average income in the bottom 20% of Rwandans was estimated at 17,400 per person in 1996. Ten years later, that average income didn’t significantly change. That situation is directly caused by anti-social policies. The report says that “ if that bottom (poorest) quintile had maintained the same share of total income as in 1995, its average income today would have been over Rwf 28,600 per person per year. “In fact, the average income of the bottom 20% of the population, expressed in constant Rwf, has barely changed since 1996” the report concludes. During that period, the incomes of the top 20% have been multiplied almost by three!

    Unsurprisingly, poverty has both deepened and extended to regions previously more secure. Kagame’s Rwanda is administratively divided in four provinces. According to regional distribution of poverty, the report indicates that “poverty increased in one province and deepened in two provinces since 2001, due to rising inequality. At current inequality rates, it is estimated that further growth could increase the gap between rich and poor without decreasing poverty”.

    That situation is clearly illustrated by the huge gap existing between a primary school teacher’s salary and the one paid to Kagame monthly. A teacher in primary school earns 20,000 Rwf per month. In comparison, Kagame receives from the State every month “a wholesome working allowance of 4,781,700 Rwf and a residence and guest entertainment allowance of 6,500,000 Rwf” as provided for by Presidential Order n° 52 of 12/10/2006 modifying Presidential Order n° 59/01 determining allowances and other fringe benefits to be allocated to State Top Political Appointees (See http://www.primature.gov.rw/journal/J.O%20n0%2021%20du%2001.11.2006.pdf )

    Cumulatively, that amount represents 565 months of a teacher’s salary. That’s 47 years of a teacher’s salary! Before 1994, the nominal salary of the President of the Republic was around 72,000 Rwf while the teacher’s salary was around 13.500 Rwf, which represented only five months of the latter’s salary.

    One should note that additionally to that, Kagame receives also from the State “ a fully furnished state house, five permanent official vehicles with all their accessories, water and electricity bills fully paid by the State, modern communication equipment including a fixed telephone line, a mobile phone, fax machine, Internet connection, a satellite phone, a dish antenna and any other communication means where deemed necessary to allow him discharge his duties” and that ‘”that communication equipment installed in his office, in his residential house and in any other place as deemed necessary shall be paid by the State”!

    Kagame’s salary is at 16,000€ per month in a country where GDP per capita stands at 180€. In comparison, in Belgium where GDP per capita stands at 27,000€, the Prime Minister receives from the State only 8,000€ per month while the minimum legal wage is 1,100€ per month. What’s most questionable is that Rwanda’s budget is funded at 60% by external donors. Kagame’s Rwanda budget is supported by external funds. The US contributes for 120 million USD, the UK for 56 million £ and Belgium for 35 million € per annum. Their budgetary support to Kagame’s Rwanda goes directly in the pockets of RPF government top political and military leaders leaving the population in misery.

  • #126

    Makasi, nsubize 125 (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 14:54)

    Umuti ntabwo ari uko yahunga,ahubwo kuko yakoze ibyaha by'intambara na za genocide, ikiza ni kujya my nkiko, cy agafungwa.

    Ariko agomba guhanwa kugiti cye cg nabo bafanije ariko atari abatutsi muru rusange nkuko bahana abahutu muri rusange.

    Yego Kagame yamaze kumvisha abatutsi ko ngo abahutu bafite icyaha cy'inkomoko, icyo nacyo ni ikirego umuntu yamurega, kuko abenshi mubahutu nabwo bakoze jenocide,

    Reka tuvuga nka abarenga 80 kwijana by'abahutu bararengana, igitangaje ni uko leta ya Kagame ihana abarenga 80% by'abahutu . Bamwe barishwe, cg barafungwa,cg bajyanwa muri Gacaca,n'ibindi utayobewe.

  • #125

    TUMUSHYIREHE ? nsubize 124 (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 14:06)

    none se ko kagome adacyeneye kwicara ngo aganire n'abo batabona ibintu kimwe, umuti w'ibintu uboneke, urabona ibiruta atari uko yavaho? Gusa numva nabwo kumwica ataribyo ikiza ari ugushaka igihugu yajyamo!ariko ubwo yakoze ibara i bugande naho, niyiyaranje, atange imihoho!!
    Bonne chance Paul

  • #124

    Makasi,message kuri Turarambiwe (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 13:59)

    Kuki wowe ushaka gusubiza abantu I Bugande, ukeka ko Museveni N'abagande bakwemera ko Pilata agaruka?

    Ese wirengagiza ko Kagame yashatse kwica Museveni inshuro nyinshi??

    Erega ikiza ni UKUBANA MU Rwanda ushaka kujya i Bigande n'ahandi akahanya mu mahoro.

    Rego ntabwo ari igitkerezo kiza kwirukana abantu.

  • #123

    TURAMWIBIKIYE (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 13:51)

    Iminsi y'igisambo iba ibaze!!
    ne vous pressez pas, il faut etre systematique kggo iyi ngoma y'ibigoryi, nako y'igitugu ya Kagome n'abanmbari be ngo tubasubize ibugande!
    Ariko se ko nabo batazabemera, baba bishakia ubuhundiro hano Canada cg se bakemera urupfu rwihuse!!

  • #122

    Dunia, Kuri JMutabazi (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 13:32)

    Icyo gihe kagame azaba aho muri America, twe tugize ishaba Ubutegetsi bwafatwa nundi maze Kagame ntagaruke.

    Rero icyo gihe James Kabarebe cyangwa umwe muru bagenzi be ashobora gushyiraho gouvernement y'inzibacyuho naho kagame ashobora guhita afatwa.

    I Kigali natwe rero urumva ko bizaba bishyushye

  • #121

    Dunia, ubutumwa kuri JMutabazi (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 13:30)

    Icyo gihe kagame azaba aho muri america, twe tigize ishaka Ubutegetsi bwafatwa nundi maze ntagaruke.

    Rero icyo gihe James Kabarebe cyangwa umwe muru bagenzi be ashobora gushyiraho gouvernement y'inzibacyuho naho kagame ashobora guhita afatwa.

    I Kigali natwe rero urumva ko bizba bishyushye

  • #120

    Leta ya Kagame irananiwe cyaaaaaane (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 13:24)

    Kugeza naho bategeka abantu kubakira inka inzu z'amatafari, ruriba, amategura cyangwa bakabana munzi

    Musome murebe ukuntu uyu muturage byamugendekeye:ABANA N'INKA MUNZU


  • #119

    PETER ERLINDER (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 13:17)



    Muzitonde mutazahasebera

  • #118

    JMutabazi (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 13:09)

    Dear All,

    Dore uko bizaba bimeze tariki ya 11 june I Chicago ku munsi President Kagame azabonana n'abanyarwanda ba North America:

    - Hazaba hari abanyarwanda barenga 3000 abahutu n'abatutsi bavanze.
    - Nanjye nzaba ndi muri abo.
    - Muri salle ya Hayatt hazaba hari morale 5/5. Atome aka Gasumuni niwe uzaba ashyushya urugamba byacitse.
    - Umujyi wa chicago uzaba umeze nk'uwafashwe n'u Rwanda. Amabendera y'u Rwanda azaba amanitse mu nguni zose.
    - Rwanda Nziza izaririmbwa na bose.Kizito Mihigo azayitera maze twese tumwikirize.
    - President Kagame azavugira ijambo rye Chicago ariko rizumvikanira kw'isi yose ndetse no mw'ijuru.
    - Abanyarwanda bazinigura: bazamubaza ibibazo n'utubazo. Nkuko asanzwe abikora azahava ibyinshi abicyemuriye aho.
    - I Kigali hazaba haturutse Abacuruzi n'Abacuranzi. Intero yabo izaba ari imwe: Agaciro: our pride, our future, our heritage.
    - Nibwo bwa mbere hazabaho igitaramo n'ubusabane byo muri urwo rwego mu mateka ya Diaspora: Urukerereza n'intore Masamba bazatarama bitinde. Abahanzi b'abahanga Kitoko, Jojo, Rafiki...bazahasiga igihanga.
    - Kizito na Bamporiki bazaryoshya icyo gitaramo.
    - Nibwo bwa mbere abadiaspora bazabona aho President Kagame abyina. Mushikiwabo na Inyumba bazacinya akadiho ivumbi ritumuke.
    - Abadiaspora bazanyeganyega na chichago inyeganyege.
    - Abanyamerika bazabona ari nk'ibitangaza: Bazagira ngo ni Martin Luther King wagarutse.
    - Rudasingwa na Rusesabagina baragowe! Guhera uwo munsi bazafunga kinwa ubuziraherezo!

    Hahirwa abazaba bahibereye!!


  • #117

    RATKO MALDIC (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 13:09)

    Ariko se Ubu murabona bino biizahanganirwa:


    Abarokotse KIBEHO kuki Mudahaguruka ngo mubaze UN icyo irindiriye ngo Abishe ababaturage nabo babibazwe?



  • #116

    Genealogie & Enfance de Kagame (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 13:07)

    Kagame est né le 23 octobre 1957 sur la colline de Nyarutovu dans la commune Tambwe, Préfecture de Gitarama, près du centre de Ruhango. Il est fils de Rutagambwa, du clan des Bega [Voici la généalogie simplifié de Kagame: Kagame- Rutagambwa- Kampayana- Cyigenza (frère de la reine Kanjogera épouse du Roi Rwabugiri et mère du roi Musinga)- Rwakagara (père de la reine Kanjogera)- Gaga- Mutezintare -Buhura- Sesonga- Makara alias Rwangabami- Kiramira- Mucuzi- Nyantabana- Bugirande-Ngoga- Gihinira- Makara alias Muziwabega]. Sa mère est la sœur de Rosalie Gicanda, épouse du Roi Mutara Rudahigwa mort en 1959. De par cette double appartenance, Kagame est très proche de la lignée royale portée au pouvoir par le coup d'Etat sanglant de Rucunshu et au cours duquel les Abanyiginya, dont le roi Rutalindwa et sa famille, furent exterminés par les Abega. L'opposition entre les Abega et les Banyiginya, depuis ces temps reculés, revient au grand jour avec le réveil de l'ex-roi Kigeri du clan Abanyiginya qui, de son exil aux Etats-Unis d'Amérique, revendique sa légitimité à la place Kagame du clan des Abega.

    Kagame partit avec ses parents en exil en 1961 en Uganda, à Gahunge, dans le district de Toro. Son père y est mort quelques années après. Sa maman a fait appel à l'aide des amis et des parentés pour pouvoir élever ses enfants. Parmi ses bienfaiteurs, la plus importante fut Rosalie Gicanda, ex-Reine du Rwanda, morte dans le génocide rwandais de 1994 à Butare. Le nommé Benzinge Boniface, actuel secrétaire de Kigeli en Amérique, prit Kagame chez lui pour diminuer la charge familiale. De Chez Benzinge, Kagame allait passer quelques jours chez Kigeri, le dernier roi du Rwanda, dans sa résidence de Kampala. En Uganda, Kagame fit des études secondaires infructueuses successivement à la Ntare School de Mbarara au sud de l'Uganda et à la Old Kampala School de Kampala de 1972 à 1976. A Kigali, en privé, on le surnomme siniya fo (senior four) pour dire qu'il a fait quatre ans post-primaires. A l'école secondaire, Kagame était connu pour son cynisme et son esprit revanchard qu'il avait le surnom de Kagome (le méchant). Renvoyé de l'école, Kagame est devenu un enfant de la rue (street child) comme on en rencontre dans bon nombre de villes africaines. Il se débrouillait en vendant des arachides grillées aux passants ou des œufs à la coque connus sous le nom d'ebimeneka (qui peut se casser). Il s'est livré par après à des opérations de change, en écoulant de faux shillings ugandais. Pour ce faire, il effectuait beaucoup de navettes entre Kampala et Naïrobi au Kenya.

  • #115

    Afrika (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 12:38)

    Cyuhagiro , ndagirango nkubwire ngo nkunda umugabo ntacyo ampaye, kuko ndabona uretse kuba wayigize ngufi, kandi nibyiza, inyandiko yawe wari ukwiye kuyinonosora noneho ukayikoramo article bien documenté kandi ntibigoye noneho ikajya mu zindi.

    Nk'uko ubivuga kandi turabyemeranya, ukuri ni ukuri, c'est tout. Ibyo abantu bakwirirwa baririmba, babeshya, baca kuruhande kubera inyungu za politiki cyangwa ibindi amateka arashyira akabashyira ku gasozi. Icyo batazi ni igihe gusa!! Utakizi arakibarirwa!!!

    Ikibabaza gusa ni ukuntu abantu tutigishwa n'amateka. Niba ari ukubera ubujiji, niba ari ukubera uburangare,etc, simbizi uko biri kose ukuri kurahari kandi kuratinda ntiguhera!!!

    Hano mu Rwanda hari intero ngo kwihesha agaciro dushingiye ku kuri, ariko ugeraho ukibaza uti ariko se aho turumvikana ku magambo turi gukoresha ( ukuri, kwihesha acaciro, etc). Icyo nemera ni uko iyo abantu bataricara ngo bashobore gutandukanya ukuri n'ikinyoma,urupfu n'ubuzima, kubaho no kubaho utariho cyangwa gupfa uhagaze, n'ibindi, inzira iba ikiri ndende!!! Ngaho ba wiriwe.

  • #114

    Cyuhagiro (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 12:21)

    Burya koko indyarya ihimwa n' indyamirizi. Nkuwsomye iyi message iri hasi mpereyeho [kandi nshimira nyirayo kutugezaho itandukanyiriza ry' ukuri kw' ibikorwa, ukwa politique, ukwitangazamakuru n' iyabahanda]kandi ko hari ibanyamahanga bazi kandi bavuga ikinyarwanda bananditse mu ndimi zabo ibyabaye mu rwatubyaye yarangiza akumva discours yatojwe, mu mutima aramwenyura.

    Iyo message no 102, ni iya Kwihangana

    (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 09:42)

    Byose ni ikibazo k'igihe, ubundi uuri kukajya ahagaragara. Ukuri nshaka kuvuga si ukuri kwa politike [aho umuntu yiarira ijambo, kuko afite ingufu]kwemezwa kubera guhora gusubirwamo. Ukuri ni ni iki cyakozwe?, cyakozwe nande?,kuki yagikoze? agikora ryari?

    Nk'interahamwe ndakwibutsa ko Murenze wazishinze ari i Kigali;

    Dr Gasana yabaye muri MRND ajya muri MDR ari mubazishinze, inyandiko zirahari. Yirukanywe ku myanya nibwo yatezaga ubwega ko bamwirukanye kandi yaratangiye gukorera FPR yabereye umuyoboke kuva 1986.

    Kajuga Robert wari perezida wazo ngo yaba ari mubyara wa Jannette Kagame. Kuki se zitaba zarashyiriweho gutegurira kagame inzira? Ngo zimuhe impamvu yo kuzikubira ubutegetsi ashinja abandi umugambi mubisha we?

    Ibi niko kuri, ukuri kw'ibikorwa. Urugero rw'ukuri kwa politike:

    - abavugaga ko umwami nava mu Rwanda, abagore n'amatungo bitazongera gusama, imirima ntyere, ntawabavuguruzaga, igihe kigeze ukuri kw'ibikorwa(la vérité des faits) kwagaragaje ko atari byo;

    - nko kuvugako kalinga yari gutobora amaso abatari gutora umwani, kwari ukuri kwa politike, siko byagenze ukuri kw'ibikorwa;

    - mu bihugu birimo igitugu, ukuri kwa politike gukoreshwa no mugutsindagira ukuri kw'ubutagera: urugero: nko kuba TIPR yemeza ko nta mugambi wa genocide wabayeho[urubanza rwa Bagosora], ababifungiye bose bagombye gufungurwa cg bagasigarana ibyaha bindi kuko iki nti kiri kuruhanda bakozeho ubushakashatsi. Ubucamanza nibusuzuma uruhande badashaka gukoraho iperereza, hari ukuri kw'ibikorwa bazabona.

    Ukuri kw'ibikorwa rero ni intagondwa ntacyo waguhinduraho:

    - nk'abirirwa baririmba ngo indege yararashwe ihanuka nk'ibuye[ukuri politique], babivura muri radio, tv, twitter ...., ukuri ni uko bitabaho, bararusywa n'ubusa,

    - nk'abatere iyabahanda ngo indege y'ikinani yarashwe amasasu aturutse imbere [ukuri kwa politique], ushobora kugutsindira uko ushaka, ariko uruganda rwayikoze rwemeza nta shiti ko ibyo uretse mu nzozi cg maji, bidashoboka, kuko ibyo bisasu biyoborwa n'imyotsi ishyushye ya moteri z'indege, ubwo bushyuhe ntibugurka imbere y'indege [la vérité des faits est têtue];

    - Uwagze ibya bisasu arazwi,uwabikoze arazwi, uwabyakiriye arazwi, uwabihaye FPR arazwi ntanabihakana, kimwe kagame kuri BBC nawe [ukuri kw'ibikorwa], ukuri kwa politike ko kubivuga uko byishakiye, [ibigambo];

    - ukuri kw'ibikorwa na none ni intagondwa kuko:

    1- yaba incuro zitabarika [ibihumi n'ibihumbagiza] wakwemeza utsindagira ukuri kwa politike, guhora ari ibinyoma igihe kutari ukuri kw'ibikorwa;

    2- yaba uburyo bwose wakoresha [ukuri kw'amategeko abogamye (nako arambaraye) wishoneye akubereye, yaba ukuri kw'itangazamakuri ( ngo urasa igihuru kitizibukira, arashyekerwa agira ngo ni umuhanga) uvuga ntusubizwe kuko ushibije ijosi barikata, ntacyo bihindura ku kuri kw'ibikorwa. Ese ye umuvugizi wa FPR Ndahiro, inganzo yakamijwe n'iki? Si ukuri kw'ibikorwa? Ntiyirirwaga yikirigita akisetse akagirango ukuri kw'itangazamakuri kwahindutse ukuri kw'ibikorwa?

    Harabura urubanza rumwe mpuzamahanga ngo ibirondwe bizumire ku ruhu inka yarariwe kera:

    ibinyoma byinshi Arusha yabishyize ahagaragara, ukuri kwa politike n'ukuri kw'itangazamakuru nibyo bigitera iya bahanda, mais kuba mu imizinga harimo imyibano ubirebye wese arabibona.

    Harya Mubaraka[ wahoze ari umukuru wa Egiputa] ari he?

    Abanjye nye icyo gihe nikigera nzabashyingura mu cyubahiro, bave mu rwibutso nsigemo ifoto yabo.

  • #113

    Rwembe (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 12:20)

    Genocide rwandais=genocide-alibi.
    Nabyanditse kenshi, jenosidi yabaye mu Rwanda, jye nemera ko habaye 2; iyahitanye abatutsi n'iyahitanye abahutu, jye mvuga ko ari "alibi" Fpr yari ikeneye kugirango yiharire ubutegetsi bwose ntawe ibusangiye. Yari ikeneye ziriya genocides kugirango ibone icyo yereka amahanga, kugirango ibone urwitazo, kugirango ibone uko isiga icyaha abo yari ihanganye nabo. Fpr yakoze umubare-muhekuzi: yari ikeneye ko horekwa imbaga ngo Yo yifatire ubutegetsi. Ibyo rwose bigomba kumvikana kuri buri wese. Ntikabeshye.

  • #112

    MA HEROINE! (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 11:59)

    Vuba aha mperutse guhurira n'abanyarwanda baba rescape ( sorry, je précise!) bavuye mu Rda muri forum vuba , pause igeze banyiramama banjye batangira kutuba abazungu twari kumwe iby' i Rda, bien entendu Génocide!!! Abantu akenshi muri rencontres nk'izi baba biteze ko ari nka kantu ka technologie gashya, endroit touristiques, la culture... bari bwigire ku banyamahanga bari buhurire nabo aha. Mais no, banyiramama banjye bafitiye discours mu mitwe bahonze yuzuye amarira bagomba kugeze kuri buri muntu bahuye nawe! Ikibabaje nuko abenshi avec la naivite abantu benshi twifitiye, nukutamenya ko uwo tubwira akenshi aba yarasomye cyane kandi ko akora analyse yibyo yumva. Du coup, iyo umubwiye les salades nkizi akenshi agufata nk'igicucu cg le pauvre qui vend sa misère pour mendier!!! Birababaje, kuko aba bana batari bazi ko ndi umunyarwanda, icyambabaje muri ibi byose ni méfiance aba bazungu baba bumvana inkuru nk'izi za propagande kuri histoire bazi neza n'image bahita baha abanyafrika bose! Abandi bararata ibyo bagezeho, civilisation, démocratie, liberté, technologie... naho mwe murarata amagufa y'abavandimwe, murivuga abo mwishe...!!!Shame on you!Muri sebya, mufite ubutegetsi mais mugomba guhumuka mukareba la réalité du monde!Mais tôt ou Tard la Vérité finira par triompher, aha niho muzabona ko mwibeshya kandi ko mwataye igihe! Toutes mes penses à Madame INGABIRE Victoire, tiens bon ma héroïne, c'est pour une bonne cause!

  • #111

    Komayombi (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 11:51)

    Zishyiraho abayobozi, wagirango inkotanyi zari zigamije kwica no gusahura aho kwitangira u Rwanda: ni gute umuntu utazi gusoma no kwandika nk'IBINGIRA yayobora abantu koko nawe atazi ibyo arimo uretse nyine ayo mabi?

  • #110

    Mateka (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 11:38)

    Karabaye: ukuri kwageze hanze kugahishirwa kuko itangazamakuru rititaye kubyaberaga Arusha, noneho kugiye gushashagirana muri Espagne. Kuzapfukiranywa gute?

    Bazicuza icyatumye bajya mu gatsiko k'amabandi rusahuzi kigize umutwe wa politike kugakwiza imiborogo Afurika y'ibiyaga bigari.

    Nyirabukorokori bwa nzikoraho yiciye indasago ku gitsina, anazishyiramo imikoni agira ngo aha arimo kwica imanzi, abyuse asanga yabyimbaganye nk'ufite ibitsina bitabarika! FPR yakomeje gukurura imanza mu bihugu hari ubutabera ngo aha irakurikirana abicanyi,none zose zigiye gusohokera rimwe ntawe ugitinya kuvuga ukuri!

    Harakabaho bucamanza bwigenga.

  • #109

    Bazirunge (vendredi, 27 mai 2011 11:17)

    Impuruza yitaga abahutu ibimonyo cg ingagi cg amasiha abyimbye amatama, hari mu mpera aza 1987, ko bagomba gupfa cg gusohoka mu gihugu inyamanza zigasubira kukiyobora abemera kuyoboka. Nabyo ntibizahishirirwa nibiburanishirizwa arusha. Ese mama, u Rwanda si urwacu twese? kuki hatarebwa ufite ubushobozi aho guhitamo uzi kwica kurusha abandi cg kwifata kugahanga agatukana? Inteko ishinga amategeko igomba koko gutukanirwamo bikemerwa n'ingirwa-ntumwa za rubanda?