Amateka n’imikorere y’ingengabitekerezo F. RUDAKEMWA

 

  1.  Mu mateka y’isi

 

Ingengabitekerezo” ni ikijambo cy’igicurano cyadutse mu Rwanda muri iyi myaka ya vuba nyuma ya 1994. Mu gifaransa ni “idéologie”, mu cyongereza bikaba “ideology”. Ubwo n’izindi ndimi zigira iryo jambo, ni ukuvuga ko icyo rihatse atari umwihariko w’Urwanda, ahubwo ko kiba n’ahandi hose ku isi no mu ngamba zose (dans tous les domaines). Mu by’ukuri, “ingengabitekerezo” ni inzira umuntu cg. abantu bishyize hamwe banyuramo kugirango bagere ku umugambi biyemeje, kandi icyo bagezeho kirambe imyaka myinshi, ndetse nibishoboka, kizahoreho iteka.

Intambwe ya mbere y’iyo nzira ni icyifuzo cg. se igitekerezo. Iyo ikigamijwe ari kibi, ushobora no kubyita irari, uburoho cg. umugambi mubisha. Intambwe ya 2 ni ukuvuga icyo utekereza. Uracyibwira wowe ubwawe, ukakibwira n’abandi, ukumva icyo babitekerezaho. Ibi bishobora kubera mu kiganiro hagati y’abavandimwe, abaturanyi cg. inshuti. Bishobora kubera mu kiganiro mbwirwaruhame (discours, conférence), kuri radiyo cg. kuri televiziyo. Ariko rero, umuntu ashobora no kubwira bandi icyo atekereza acyandika ku mpapuro (amatangazo, inyandiko, ibinyamakuru, ibitabo…) cg kuri “internet”. Intambwe ya 3 ni ugushyira mu bikorwa ibyatekerejwe, bikavugwa ndetse bikandikwa.

Ingengabitekerezo” rero ubwayo si ikintu kibi. Iba mbi iyo igamije amarorerwa, iba nziza iyi igamije ikintu cyiza. “Ingengabitekerezo” igira ingufu iyo ihuriweho n’abantu benshi. Bashobora no kuba bake, ariko bakaba bafite uburyo bwo kureshya abandi, ubushobozi (amikoro) n’ukwemera “kutajegajega, gukomeye nk’urutare gutuma batangira ibikorwa bikomeye kandi bakabirangiza”. Icyo bemera bagifata nk’ihame ridakuka, baracyitangira, bakaba banagipfira. Ukwemera nk’uko kwari gufitwe na Martini Luteri King waharaniye uburenganzira n’ukwishyira ukizana kw’Abirabura muri Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika na Gandi wagejeje Ubuhindi ku bwigenge. Nanone kandi, “Ingengabitekerezo” ivana ingufu nyinshi mu guhererekanwa kuva mu gisekuruza kugera mu kindi, cg. mu kwinjira mu mitwe, mu mitima, mu mvugo no mu ngiro y’abantu benshi mu gihe gito. “Ingengabitekerezo” ikura izindi ngufu nyinshi mu gucengera mu bayobozi b’igihugu cyangwa se mu kucyigarurira burundu. None se uyobora igihugu si we ucunga umutungo wacyo, si we wakira kandi agacunga imfashanyo ziturutse mu mahanga? Si we se itangazamakuru rya Leta n’iriyibogamiyeho? Leta se si ryo shyirahamwe (personne morale) ryonyine ryemerewe gukoresha ingufu iyo bibaye ngombwa mu rwego rwo kuzuza inshingano zayo? Birumvikana rero, iyo abantu bafite “Ingengabitekerezo” nziza bagiye ku butegetsi, igihugu kirahungukira. Iyo gifashwe n’abafite “Ingengabitekerezo” mbi, kirorama. Hashobora kuboneka ingero nyinshi cyane zerekana ukuri kw’ibimaze kuvugwa. Reka dufatemo 3 gusa : urw’Abayisiraheli, urwa Hitler Adolf, n’urwo mu Rwanda turi butindeho gato.

 

1. Abayisiraheri bakomeye cyane ku mateka yabo akubiye ahanini mu “Iseserano rya kera” rivuga ko ngo ari “ubwoko bwatowe n’Imana”. Ayo mateka n’uko kwemera kwabo barabihererekanije kuva mu gisekuruza kugera mu kindi, bituma batarimbuka, none baraganje kugera magingo aya. Byinjiye mu mitwe y’abantu benshi ko Umuyahudi umwe apfuye, isi iba icitse umugongo ; ariko hapfuye Abanyepalestina, Abarabu cyangwa Abirabura ijana, ntacyo biba bitwaye. Iyo ni “Ingengabitekerezo”. Nyamara burya, Abayahudi bifuza ko igihugu cyabo kibana neza na Palestina ndetse n’ibindi bihugu byose by’Abarabu ni benshi cyane! Bari mu kuri. Ariko se, bavugire he? Ziba nke, ziba nyinshi, intagondwa zibarusha ingufu.

2. Umugabo Adolf Hitler yiyandikiye igitabo cyitwa “Intambara ndwana” (Mein Kampf). Mu bagisomye kigishoka mu w’1925, bamwe baravugaga ngo “uyu ni umusazi, ibyo avuga ntashobora kubishyira mu bikorwa”.

Nyuma, aho agereye ku butegetsi mu w’1933, yatangiye kubishyira mu bikorwa, isi yose ihinda imishyitsi, nawe arayititiza koko kugera apfuye mu w’1945. Ngizo rero za ngufu z’“Ingengabitekerezo” iyo abayifite bigaruriye igihugu. Ihame ry’uko ubwoko bw’aba “Aryens” bugizwe n’abantu baruta abandi bose, kubera iyo mpamvu bakaba bagomba kubategeka, si Hitler warihimbye. Yararisanze, ararinononsora, arishyira mu bikorwa ; isi icura imiborogo. Hiltler yifuzaga ko ubutegetsi bushingiye ku ngengabitekerezo ye bwazamara nibura imyaka 1000 (Reich millénaire).

3. Mu Rwanda ijambo “Ingengabitekerezo” ryandutse ubwo abambari ba FPR bagiraga bati “Itsembabwoko ryibasiye Abatutsi mu w’1994 rifite amateka maremare, ryatangiye mu w’1959. Kuva icyo gihe umwana w’Umuhutu wese avukanaIngengabitekerezo ya jenoside. Tugombe tuyimuvure rero, «nk’uko bavura inturo amabinga»”. Nyamara abakurikiranira hafi amateka y’Urwanda, ari aya kera, aya vuba aha, ndetse n’ay’ubu, bahamya kandi bakerekana ko, niba “Ingengabitekerezo y’itsembwabwoko ibaho koko”, ko atari umwihariko w’Abahutu bamwe na bamwe (Interahamwe), ko ahubwo ari indwara ifata n’Abatutsi bamwe na bamwe, kandi bakaba baratangiye kugaragaza ibimenyetso byayo kera cyane Gihanga agihanga Urwanda. Ni byo tugiye gusuzuma mu gice cya 2 cy’iyi nyandiko.

 

  1. Mu Rwanda

 

Ni gute umuntu yaririra Abantu bishwe n’Interahamwe, ndetse akanabahorera ; ariko akaruca akarumira ku bantu bishwe n’Inkotanyi ? Aho iyo si ya nyagwa y’ Ingengabitekerezo ? Kwamagana radiyo Rutelemu (RTLM) birakwiye, ariko se burya radiyo Muhabura yo yigishaga urukundo? Indirimbo za Simoni Bikindi ntizashishikazaga ingabo z’Urwanda gukomera ku urugamba nk’uko iza Kayirebwa zabikoreraga Inkotanyi? Léon Mugesera na Alexandre Kimenyi bombi bari barize iby’indimi (linguistique). Amarorerwa ya Mugesera ku Kabaya le 22 Ukwakira 1992, avuga ngo Abatutsi bazasubizwe muri Abisiniya banyujijwe muri Nyabarongo, ntaho ataniye n’ibya Kimenyi agira ati : “Nongeye gusaba ko abo bantu (Abahutu) bagenda hakiri kare. Ubu ni twe turamukiwe gutura mu Rwanda”(Impuruza no 15 Ukuboza 1989, urup. 94). Ntiyarekeye aho, kuko nyuma yaje gutura Rwigema igisigo cyitwa “Nsingize Gisa umusore utagira uko asa”. Abatutsi abita imfura, Abahutu akabita amasatura. Agakomeza ashimira Rwigema ko yarashe izo nyamaswa. Noneho agakuraho agahu, agatuka Abahutu ibitutsi byose bibi bibaho. Aragira ati :

 

Mfizi ifora imfuruta imfura zigafungurwa

Ubwo wakoze mu ntagara ukarekura intanage
Abatindi ntibazatinda gutondora

Izo siha zisanzwe zisahura zirasuherewe

Ibyo birumbo bitarambirwa kutwambura
Bihora bidukindura bidutimbura bigamije
kuturimbura

Izo menabanga zatekeye amabinga
Amaguru ndabona ziyabangiye ingata zigira
bwangu
Abo bajura batujujubya
Ba majimbiri b'injiji zijunditse umujinya
Inyangarwanda zirwandarika rukandavura
Ba mabondo yamize imikondo bokabura ibibondo
Ibyo birumbo by'umururumba biduhombereza ibihumbi
Byumvise imbunda birabunda
Byatomotswe bimokorwa bimoka
Bizungerezwa bizunguruka mu bazungu
Ngo babihe inzaratsi Inziza ze kubizungura.

 

(Impuruza no 17, Ukuboza 1990, urup. 2)

 

Abavuga nibavuge ! “Ingengabitekerezo” mbi itari iyi koko ni iyihe? Mugesera avugira ku Kabaya, perezida Yuvenali Habyarimana yari amaze icyumweru avugiye mu Ruhengeri ngo “tuzambara, tumanuke”. Kuri 31 Ukwakira 1990, yari yavugiye mu Mutara ko abishwe n’Inkotanyi zari zimaze ukwezi ziteye Urwanda bagombaga guhorerwa. Ingengabitekerezo dusanga muri ayo magambo, tuyisanga yikubye kenshi mu byo Paulo Kagame yavugiye i Nyamirambo mu w’1996, birya byo kuvoma amazi mu ngunguru ukayamaramo ukoresheje umufuniko w’icupa. Naho se ibyo yavugiye i Bwisige le 31 Werurwe 2003 ngo “Beza ibigori? Twe dufite imashini zo kubisya!”. Ku ya 7 Mata, i Murambi ya Gikongoro ababajwe n’uko ngo Musenyeri André Perraudin yamucitse, kandi akabazwa no kuba atarashoboye kwica hakiri kare Abanyarwanda bari barahungiye muri Kongo. Birya se byo kugereranya Abahutu n’imbwa, Abatutsi n’inka? “Inka ibyara rimwe mu mwaka, kandi ikabyara akanyana cg.akamasa kamwe. Imbwa ibwagura kenshi mu mwaka, kandi ikabwagura ibibwana byinshi. Nyamara, ntawigeze abona ubushyo bw’imbwa, ariko ubushyo bw’inka bwo buragaragara”. Yemwe, muri iyi mvugo, nta “ngengabitekerezo y’itsembabwoko” irimo?

Tubivuge, tubisubire, niba “Ingengabitekerezo y’itsembwabwoko ibaho koko” mu Rwanda, si umwihariko w’Abahutu bamwe na bamwe (Interahamwe), ahubwo ni indwara ifata n’Abatutsi bamwe na bamwe, kandi bakaba baratangiye kugaragaza ibimenyetso byayo kera cyane.

 

1. Gahunda y’ishyaka rya Lunari (UNAR) yatangajwe ku italiki ya 15 Nzeri 1959, hari aho yageraga ikavuga ngo :

 

Bien que la société rwandaise soit composée d’individus de valeur très inégale, et qu’il n’est pas équitable d’accorder la même valeur à la pensée vulgaire de l’homme ordinaire qu’au jugement perspicace de l’homme capable… Bien que le suffrage universel aboutira infailliblement à l’asservissement de la minorité lettrée par une majorité inculte… …L’organisation immédiate de notre parti s’empressera de donner les mêmes droits aux Bahutu et aux Batwa, et en même temps s’empressera de mâter la sottise et la trahison communes aux êtres incapables de la plus élémentaire abstraction. (Nkundabagenzi F, Rwanda politique, Coll. Les dossiers du C.R.I.S.P., Lielens, Bruxelles, 1962, p.94)

 

N’ubwo Urwanda rugizwe n’abantu batareshya, kandi bikaba bidakwiye kureshyeshya ibitekerezo by’ inshakarafu n’iby’abantu bazi ubwenge…. N’ubwo amatora yatuma bake bazi ubwenge dutegekwa na rubanda nyamwinshi igizwe n’ibicucu gusa, …Ubuyobozi bw’ishyaka ryacu buzaha Abahutu n’Abatwa uburenganzira kimwe n’ubwacu. Ariko rero buzihutira no gucecekesha abantu b’ibicucu n’abagambanyi. Agatekerezo karabihishe.

 

(Reba mu gitabo cya Nkundabagenzi F, Rwanda politique, Coll. Les dossiers du C.R.I.S.P., Lielens, Bruxelles, 1962, urup.94).

 

 

Icyo gihe, amagambo « ingengabitekerezo, itsembabwoko cg. jenoside », yari atarabaho mu kinyarwanda ; ariko abarwanashyaka ba Lunari biyitaga « Abashyirahamwe ». Iri zina rikaba risa cyane n’iry’Interahamwe za MRND, Impuzamugambi za CDR cg. Abadasigana ba UPRONA. Yewe, “ibisa birasabirana koko”!

 

2. Kuri 17 Gicurasi 1958, abo Bashyirahamwe bari bandikiye umwami n’inama nkuru y’igihugu, bayihangiriza ngo ntisuzume ikibazo cy’amoko mu Rwanda, kuko kuri bo Urwanda rwari urw’Abatutsi gusa. Igika cya nyuma cy’iyo barwa kiravuga ngo :

 

Ko mwumva abantu baburana umunani, ababura umunani ko ari abavandimwe, ...ko ahubwo baje tukabahaka kugeza ubu, ubundi buvandimwe bwacu ni ubuhe ? Gatutsi na Gatwa bahuriye he na Gahutu ko twumva ko Gatutsi na Gatwa na Gahutu ari bene Kanyarwanda, nyirukubabyarana na Kanyarwanda yitwa, ni umuki ? …Kimanuka ni uwa Kigwa wasanze abantu nu Rwanda…Ngaho namwe muratwumvire iyo mivire n’indimwe yacu n’Abahutu yo kwa Kanyarwanda! …Abahinza bishwe n’uyu mwami, ahindura ibihugu byabo. Ibindi bihugu byahinduwe n’abandi bami bica abahinza bari babirimo. Ntitugombye kubavuga, nimushaka muzabirebe mu Nganji karinga, biranditse. Ikibazo : Ubwo batsindaga ibihugu by’Abahutu b’Abahinza bakabahaka ari abavandimwe babo? (Rétrospective, Le problème ruandais 1957-1962, Série 1, Dossier 2, pp. 7-9).

 

Bukeye bwaho ku ya 18 Gicurasi 1959, abagaragu bakuru b’ibwami barongeye bandikira umwami n’inama nkuru y’igihugu bavuga ngo “ubutaka ni ubwabo, nk’uko Urwanda ari urw’umwami”, ngo Abahutu bashaka amasambu bazimuke bave mu Rwanda cg. bajye gutura mu bice byarwo bitera.

 

3. Muri ayo magambo yabo, harimo ingengabitekerezo mbi cyane bakomoraga ku basekuruza babo. Bamwe batatinyaga gufata abandi banyarwanda nk’udusimba. Kanjogera, baramubazaga bati “ese ko wituma ku gasozi, abantu bakureba?”. Ngo “bariya se ni abantu, ko ari udusimba!”. Kankazi yabonye Abahutu bagungira ibijumba mu gishanga cya Rugeramigozi, abaza abagaragu be ati “Turiya ni dusimba ki mbona mu gishanga ?” Bamusubiza ko ari abantu bari gutabirira ibijumba. Nawe ati “Ese buriya nibutaha, buri kose karamenya akako?”. Yasuye seminari nto y’i Kabgayi, abona igiseminari cy’igihutu koko (cyaje kuba padiri n’ubu kiracyariho), aravuga ngo “Nta kindi cyana gisa na kiriya ngo bagifotore hamwe n’ibwa yanjye?”. N’ibindi byinshi.

Agasimba gashoboye kugira akamaro, ni ibintu byiza. Icyo gihe uragakoresha nk’uko bakoresha ipunda (indogobe).Tuzabigarukaho tuganira ku ubuhake. Ariko kwica agasimba, nko kumanika imbwa, nta cyaha cyabagamo. Kugera mu myaka mike yabanjirije ihinduramatwara (révolution) ryo muri 59, bari bakidutwikira mu majangara. Tugiye kure byo, ntawavuga. Inkota ya Kanjogera ntiyararaga ubusa. Hari igihe ingabo za Rwabugiri zitozaga kumasha, ariko zikitoreza ku bantu nyirizina.

 

 

 

Umwanzuro

 

Ingengabitekerezo” ubwayo si ikintu kibi. Iba mbi iyo igamije amarorerwa, iba nziza iyo igamije ikintu cyiza. Ariko Abanyarwanda bo, kuberako bakanzwe, bumva “Ingengabitekerezo” ari ikintu kibi uko byagenda kwose. Iyatumye haba itsembabwoko mu Rwanda muw’1994 yaba ngo yaravutse muri 59. Ituma bakomeje guhunga kugeza n’ubu, ntibacire, ntibakorore, ntibahumeke, bagahorana umutima mutwe, hari abahamya rwose ko iyo yo yatangiye kera. Amahirwe ni uko Abanyarwanda batanduye ingengabitekerezo mbi n’imwe ari bo benshi. Ni yo mpamvu hakiri icyizere ko ineza izatsinda inabi, ko ukuri kuzanesha ikinyoma, ko urumuri ruzatsinsura umwijima, hakazaza n’ibindi bintu byiza byinshi mu Rwanda rwa Gahutu, Gatwa na Gatutsi, ari bo bagize “Inyabutatu ijya mbere”.

 

Imana ikomeze irinde Urwanda.

 

F. Rudakemwa

Tel: 0039.0763732085

Mob : 0039.333.3167336

Email : rdfkm@yahoo.fr.