ven.

04

nov.

2011

KUKI BIGIZA NKANA : Ngo Rusesabagina ntiyadutabaye kuko yaducaga amafaranga mbere yo kutwakira muri Mille Collines! Chantal Kibibi.

Hotel Mille Collines
Hotel Mille Collines


Kimwe mu byaha bikomeye bishinjwa Rusesabagina ngo ni uko yakaga mafaranga abahungiye muri Hotel Mille Collines ! Uwabeshya we ntiyafata akanya agahimba ikinyoma cyenda gusa n’ukuri ?! Mu by’ukuri kuki Leta y’i Kigali yisunga injiji mu kubeshya ?

N’ubwo muri mata  1994, Indege ya Habyarimana imaze kuraswa na FPR Inkotanyi ku itegeko rya Paul Kagame, igihugu cyahise gicura imiborogo, ubuzima bwarakomezaga, abadapfuye bagakenera kurya, kuryama, kwivuza…Aho bishoboka imirimo myinshi yarakomeje nk’ubucuruzi, kuvura, gucumbikira abantu…..


Mille Collines yari Hoteli , nayo yakomeje imirimo yayo yo kwakira abantu, kubacumbikira no kubitaho. Kandi Mille Collines yari isanzwe ari Hoteli itari iya buri wese, yari isanzwe ari iy’abifite. Ubusanzwe icyumba  kimwe cyarihwaga amadolari 150 ku ijoro rimwe : Ni amafaranga y’u Rwanda asaga ibihumbi  mirongo icyenda (90.000) !


  1.  GASAMAGERA Wellars  ukomoka za Mushubati ngo ararega Rusesabagina ko yamurihishije ibihumbi 180 by’amafaranga y u Rwanda!

Twibutse ko ayo mafaranga ahwanye n’ayo umuntu umwe yariha icyumba cya Mille Collines amajoro abiri gusa ! Gasamagera we yahingutse muri Mille Collines ari kumwe n’umugore we n’abakobwa be icyenda (9 filles ) ! Kandi ntiyamaze muri iyo Hoteli ijoro rimwe gusa ahubwo yahamaze amezi atatu! Acumbikiwe, agaburirwa….naringiye kongeraho ngo byamufashije no kurindirwa umutekano mu gihe abandi Banyarwanda b’inzirakarengane  batagira ingano bicwaga, babuze n’uwo baha amafaranga menshi ngo abarokorere ubuzima ! Data umbyara iyo aza kubona uwo aha ayagura indege ariko akamukiza umuhoro, ntiyari kuzuyaza kuyatanga !


None uyu mushinyaguzi wafashijwe, we, n’umugore we n’abakobwa be 9 bose, arihandagaje ngo arashinja! U Rwanda rugeze kure bikabije!

 

2. Ubonye na Makuza Bertin ngo arijujuta!


Uyu we yaje muri Mille Collines azanye n’abantu 33 bashakishwaga bikomeye n’Interahamwe, ku buryo byabaye ngombwa kujya bahindurirwa icyumba hafi ya buri joro ! Nyamara disi ndabona asa n’uwabyibagiwe!


Dore amwe mu magambo amusohokamo: “Uwo Rusesabagina yahaje nawe ali impunzi nka twe avuye Diplomate, yari aje gufata lisansi, kuko we yari ashinzwe gestion ya Diplomate, ahageze asanga urugo rwasigayemo abasore, arabohoza, abohoza inzu natwe aratubohoza. Aje atangira kwishyuza, abafite ama chèques turayamuha, aliko amafaranga ntiyashoboye no kuyafata, aho birangiriye twasanze amafaranga yacu akili kuli compte, aliko abamuhaye amafaranga (mu ntoki) yarayafashe. Kuvuga rero ko yaturokoye, nta bushobozi yari afite, twarinzwe na pression FPR yali ifite y'abantu bari ku Mahoro, basa n'abadushingana, bati abo nibagira icyo baba mwibuke ko natwe dufite abandi….”


Twibaze impamvu


(1)Ko biragaragara ko nta mafaranga ya Bertin Makuza Rusesabagina yafashe, uyu mugabo aravuza induru kubera iyihe mpamvu? Aragira ati : “ twasanze amafaranga yacu akili kuli compte”! Hanyuma se ?


(2) Twibuke ko icyo gihe Rusesabagina iyo abishaka aba yaragiye i Gitarama ariya ma chèques akayaha Banki, ikamuha amafaranga! Byarakorwaga. Kuba atarabikoze, yabitewe no gutinya Bertin Makuza?


(3) Ko Bertin Makuza yiyemerera ko yazanye abantu 33 bose muri iriya Hoteli , yaje atekereza ko bazarya iki ? Ubu se asobanura ko ibyabatunze mu gihe cy’amezi atatu bahamaze byaturutse he? Indashima we!


(4) Ko Bertin yihaye kuririra ngo abatanze intica ntikize y’udufaranga , aremeza ko  iyo abo bose baza kuba bari iwabo mu rugo amezi atatu yari gushira batagiye mu isoko ngo bahahe ibyo kurya ?


ICYITONDERWA:


Ndagira ngo mumenye kouyu umugabo Bertin Makuza yari umucuruzi ukomeye! Yari Propriétaire wa RWANDAFOM, akaba yari ayifatanije na SERUBUGA na RWAGAFIRITA! Aho bahungiye ubu yarayibohoje ayigira iye wenyine!


Ibi byose birerekana kamere nyayo y’uyu mugabo! Umuntu wishimira ko yacumbikiwe muri Hoteli , we n’abantu be 33, akitabwaho , akagaburirwa, mu gihe cy’amezi atatu yose, ntatange n’ifaranga iri rimwe!  Umuntu nk’uyu yamarira iki abandi n’igihugu?


Kereka niba IGIHAKE cyaragarutse mu Rwanda, hakaba hari abacakara bagomba gukora bakagoka noneho hakaba na BANYAGUHIRWA bagomba kurya ibyo bataruhiye! Birashoboka ko abantu bihandagaza bakavugira mu bitangazamakuru ubugoryi nk’ubu, ariko baba bumva ibintu! Ubwo reka dufate ko ariyo myumvire yo mu RWANDA RUSHYA!

 

Umwanzuro


(1)Mille Collines ntiyari CARITAS RWANDA, bishatse kuvuga ko mu nshingano zayo gufasha imbabare bitarimo! Kumva ko wajya muri Hoteli ikorera amafaranga utegereje ko bakugaburira, bakakwitaho ku buntu, ni ubutesi n’ uburere bubi bitangaje! Imyumvire nk’iyo yagirwa gusa n’abantu b’ibisambo kabuhariwe bamenyereye gutungwa n’ibyo batakoreye !


(2)Igitangaje ni uko Mille Collines yo yaretse gukorera amafaranga ikitangira abantu bagera ku 1400(igihumbi magana ane , mu gihe cy’amezi atatu ! Abazi gukora imibare namwe mwumve! Nyamara, INDASHIMA…..ziriho !

 

(3)Icyo Rusesabagina azira Wellars Gasamagera akivuga muri aya magambo :

Arangije abihinduramo politiki, ngo avugira abativugira, ngo mu Rwanda barakandamijwe, bivuye muri senema, bivuye mu nkuru, bivuye mw'ikinamico, bivuye muli Fondation itagira epfo na ruguru, ati noneho ndashaka n'ubutegetsi. 


Paul Kagame na FPR ye bifitiye ubwoba ko imidari ihabwa Rusesabagina yatuma amenyekana, bikazamufasha kubona uko agaragaza ibyaha bikomeye by’ubwicanyi no gusahura igihugu, bityo amaherezo bikazatuma agera ku butegetsi ! Ngiyo impamvu y’ukuri, ibindi ni ibifitirano byo gushaka gusebya Rusesabagina kandi yaragiriye benshi neza.


Twanze ikinyoma, ukuri ni kwitwe ukuri! Rusesabangina nta maraso afite ku biganza bye, nabishimirwe, abashinjabinyoma ba Kagame, bafunge kinwa!


BIRACYAZA.


Chantal Kibibi. 

 

Commentaires : 129
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  • #127

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  • #126

    Amaherezo y'agahuru ni ugushya ! (mardi, 08 novembre 2011 20:42)

    Expéditeur: News@hirondelle.org
    Date: 7 novembre 2011 18:09:24 HNEC
    Destinataire: Gerald.Faes@hirondelle.org
    Objet: TPIR/RUDASINGWA - RUDASINGWA PRET A REVELER « TOUS LES DETAILS SUR L’ATTENTAT DU 6 AVRIL»


    FONDATION HIRONDELLE - AGENCE DE PRESSE HIRONDELLE
    ________________________________________________________________
    TPIR/RUDASINGWA


    RUDASINGWA PRET A REVELER « TOUS LES DETAILS SUR L’ATTENTAT DU 6 AVRIL» Washington, 4 novembre 2011 (FH) - Théogène Rudasingwa, directeur de cabinet de Paul Kagamé avant d’entrer en dissidence en 2004, « exige » d’être entendu par le Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda (TPIR) ou toute autre juridiction indépendante pour « divulguer tous les détails » sur l’attentat du 6 avril 1994, dont il impute la responsabilité à l’actuel chef de l’Etat rwandais. « Je ne le demande pas, je l’exige », a-t-il déclaré vendredi à l’Agence Hirondelle.
    Secrétaire général du FPR en 1994, puis ambassadeur du Rwanda aux Etats-Unis (1996-1999) et, enfin, l’homme dans l’antichambre du pouvoir de Paul Kagamé (2000-2004), Théogène Rudasingwa vit en exil aux Etats-Unis depuis 2005. Le 1er octobre 2011, il a rendu public sur sa page Facebook une confession en anglais, dans laquelle il accuse Paul Kagamé d’être « personnellement responsable de l’attentat » contre l’avion du président Habyarimana.
    « Je confirme que Kagamé m’a dit en juillet 1994 qu’il était responsable de l’attentat. Je divulguerai tous les détails devant le TPIR, devant un juge français, ou devant toute autre juridiction internationale. D’autres preuves confortant mon témoignage seront également produites dans ce cadre par d’autres témoins de l’époque », a affirmé Rudasingwa à l’Agence Hirondelle.
    Il a ajouté qu’il souhaitait « comparaître aussi tôt que possible », précisant : « Je l’exige en tant que témoin de l’un des événements cruciaux du XXe siècle, dont les conséquences tragiques perdurent près de 20 ans plus tard ».
    En France, une enquête a été ouverte en 1998 suite aux plaintes des familles des membres d’équipages français décédés dans l’attentat. D’abord menée par le juge Bruguière, qui avait conclu en 2006 à la responsabilité du FPR, l’instruction est désormais entre les mains de deux juges anti-terroristes, Nathalie Poux et Marc Trévidic.
    Les résultats d'une expertise balistique effectuée à leur demande in situ, à Kigali, en septembre 2010, sont toujours attendus.
    Le Bureau du Procureur auprès du TPIR s’est toujours refusé à enquêter sur l’attentat du 6 avril 1994, bien que la mort violente du président rwandais soit considérée comme l’événement déclencheur du génocide de 1994.
    GF/JC/ER

    © Agence Hirondelle

  • #125

    Oroha (lundi, 07 novembre 2011 21:18)

    Gatindi Kagerigeri wo kagerwa amahiri we...... witurangaza.

  • #124

    kagerigeri (lundi, 07 novembre 2011 13:12)

    Menya uburyo 5 umukobwa ashobora gukoresha kugira ngo ashimishe umusore w’incuti ye Usanga abakobwa benshi bahora bibaza icyo bakorera abakunzi babo kugira ngo bishime, burya rero ngo ntibyoroshye birashoboka ko wagira icyo ukora umusore w’incuti yawe yishime.

    Dore Uburyo butanu(5) wakoreshwa umukunzi akishima kandi agahora iteka yumva ntawe ukurusha gukunda ubaho.
    1. Boy friend wawe akeneye kumva ko umufata nk’udasanzwe kandi ko ari uw’agaciro. Mutere imitoma, mubwire ibyiza afite kandi umureke agukorere ibyo yifuza gukora byose kuko ngo bituma yumva ko akomeye kandi ashoboye.
    2. Kuko abagabo bakunda imikino, niba ubona abikunda muhe umwanya awurebe niba bishoboka umuherekeze kandi ushakishe uko wamwereka ko uba witaye ku byo akunda kandi ujye unyuzamo unamuherekeze ndetse unamwibutse ko hari umukino runaka uri bube.
    3. jya ugira umwete wo gukangurira umusore w’incuti yawe kuba hamwe n’inshuti ze kuko bizamwereka ko umuha umwanya wo kuganira na bagenzi be.
    4. Fata umwanya umutegurire ifunguro uzi akunda bizamwereka ko umuha agaciro kandi ko umwubaha bityo ngo ahora akwibuka kuko ibyo umukorera n’umwanya umuha bimusigara mu mutwe bigatuma abona itandukaniro ryawe n’abandi bakobwa.
    5. Kandi mukobwa sobanukirwa yuko ikintu cya mbere gituma umusore mukundana ahorana ibyishimo ari uko nawe uhora wishimye, nuzinga umunya ntaho umusore mukundana yahera yishimye kuko ibyishimo by’abasore bituruka kuby’incuti zabo.


  • #123

    Mutimamuke (lundi, 07 novembre 2011 03:07)

    Iyi film ibarya ,yemeje amahanga yose ko genocide yabaye mu Rda ni uburyo yakozwe.
    Amahanga aza abagana aza kureba amahano yahabereye, none dore n,irindi kosa mukora mukora mu bwonko twe abarokotse:Mwa ndashima mwe z,inda nini,mwaretse gucuruza amagufa y,abacu,mukatwemerera tukayavana ku ntara mu nzibutso,tukayashyingura tukaruhuka,ko ni ubundi ibyo mukora atari umuco nyarwanda?Se nkawe ucuruza ayomagufa ako gahanga kabaye ak,umubyeyi wawe cg ak,umwana wawe? Niba se uwawe wumva akwiye kubahwa agashyingurwa kuki uwanjye wumva yakomeza kwanama ku gasi???

  • #122

    Mugasa (lundi, 07 novembre 2011 02:39)


    Indashima zose zigambanira uwazigiriye neza aho kumwitura ineza zagiriwe zirakagwa ku gasi nta kindi nzifurije. Murabe mwumva ba Makuza (Bernard na Bertin), Nyiramirimo, Gasamagera n'izindi nkozi z'ibibi mufatanyije ubugome!

    Imana ntizigera ibababarira ubwo bugome mwadukanye mugamije kurengera isahani yanyu!

  • #121

    Nzababaza (lundi, 07 novembre 2011 02:10)

    www.rwanda.unblog.fr


  • #120

    Ndayasumbyindagu (lundi, 07 novembre 2011 01:53)

    Urakoze Patricia kubwira makuza na makuza ndetse ukaba utibagiwe na gasamagera n,izindi ndashima.Ugirirwa neza ni uwo yayigiriye abagirimana,ariko na nyamwanga iyo byavuye yanze uwamuhaye inka! Ko mbona uyu Rusesabagina yarengeye amaraso yanyu,aye mukaba muyahaye imbwa ngo ziyanywe???Uyu munsi hari ku cyu mweru nizere ko mutanywanye inka ikirego,ngomwibeshye ko mwabeshye na Nyirigira mukaba mwariye ukaristiya!!!Indirimbo Rata Siyoni igira iti:ahabwa ababi ni abeza,abeza bagahabwa ubugingo ababi bagahabwa urupfu.Mwa baseminari mwe <Bernard na Wellars>n,intumwa zanyu nk,umubyeyi ugombye kuba asheshe akanguhe nka Bertin ,mur,iyi ndirimbo umwanya wanyu uri hehe???????????????????

  • #119

    Patricia (lundi, 07 novembre 2011 00:26)

    Banyarwanda mwaretse gukomeza kwitesha agaciro,nibyo ababaye muri Hotel sibo bazi genocide,rwose nibareke gukomeza kudushinyagurira twe twabaye kuri uwo musaraba,tukibona abacu badushizeho.Se mwa ndashima mwe,mwibwira ko ayo mateshwa abatesheje agaciro,mwayarushaga abayaguraga isasu ariko akicwa urubozo???makuza!!!!!Rusesabagina yafashije Imana kukurokora n,umugore wawe ni abandi bantu bawe33???Yaaa ubu muruzuye mu muryango wawe.amaraso agurwa iki maku?Rwose nta nubwo wabasha gushima Imana utabashije no gushima Rusesa yagutumyeho,Ndabona ubaye yuda!Ntuziyahure.Kimwe na gasamagera na makuza bazina bawe ni abandi mwese ba barenga ineza.Byose Imana irabyumva ikicecekera,ngo igihe cyo guhana ntikirashira,ariko izabahana.Bwana Paul Rusesabagina azabona ishimo rye,ku Mana no kubantu.









  • #118

    Mukambuguje (dimanche, 06 novembre 2011 22:13)

    ♬ ♬
    Hariho indwara yanyobeye
    Indwara iva kuri kamere
    Indwara y'ubwenge buke
    .....

    Iryo ni ishyari ishyari ishyari
    Ryo gatsindwa, iba mu bantu ♬♬

    Ngiryo iryo Rusesabagina azize.
    Azize abanyabwenge buke.
    Azize izo kamere mbi zose.

    Ariko azarinda yisazira akiruta izo nyana z'imbwa zose.

  • #117

    Attitude Tutsi (dimanche, 06 novembre 2011 08:59)

    Iyi attitude Tutsi yo kumva ko abahutu ntakiza cyabakomokaho irababaje kandi igomba guhindurwa inzira zikigendwa.Naho ibyo gucuruza Genocide ntitukabitindeho ko birazwi neza ko iriya Genocide iyo itaza Kuba Kagame ntabwo aba ategeka u Rwanda kandi arabizi neza kuko niyo mpamvu y'irirwa yanitse turiya duhanga twa benewacu aho kubashyingura kuko aritwo arisha ku girango ingoma ye ishingiye kukinyoma arebe ko yamara kabari!Ninayompamvu adahwema gupromotinga Genocide tourism.

  • #116

    Mpogoma (dimanche, 06 novembre 2011 05:46)

    Kuri #115

    Kugeza ubu nari nzi ko mumurega kwiyitirira ubutwari adakwiye, sinari nzi ko yanishe abatutsi,ndabona waraminuje mu bushinjacyaha bw'ikinyoma!!!Intore ntimubona ko ibyanyu ari mpemuke ndamuke gusa!!
    Ese mwibwira ko kugomeza gutongera abamagana amabi yanyu ngo "banyweye amaraso" aribyo bizatuma baceceka???
    Nimurekere aho murakora ubusa nk'umwana wenda undi!!!!

  • #115

    agathe kanziga (dimanche, 06 novembre 2011 01:39)

    comment #114,uvuze ubusa,uri umuheza ngini,ubogamiye kuri iyo ngirwa hutu rusesabagina,ubwo mwarafatanyije niyo mpamvu umuvugira.ariko ni hahandi hawe,n,ubwo bamuha igihembo,ntigiciye m,u kuri uretse gucuruza genocide yakoze,ubwose si ukugotomera amaraso ya batutsi bishwe,na komeze yinywere wenda azagera aho amuhagame...

  • #114

    Ndumiwe!!!! (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 23:17)

    ubu nanditse ngeze kuri COMMENT y'114, nazisomye zose atari ukubura icyo nkora cyangwase guta umwanya , gusa birababaje! ubu ndabizi hari abahita bavugira hejuru , ariko burya mu muco mwiza ugomba kuvuga ufite icyo uvugiraho.(waba wabyumvise cyangwa se wa bisomye ahantu)
    ku kibazo cya RUSESABAGINA: ni umugabo nkurikije ibyo yakoreye abantu yabashije gutunga mugihe cy'igeze kumezi atatu arenga, munyumve neza nanze gukoresha ijambo GUHISHA cyangwa GUKIZA kuko nabonye bamwe kubera inyungu zabo, cyangwa se,uruhande bahagarariyeho barahisemo gupfobya amateka kumugani wa ya ndirimbo ya KIZITO MIHIGO, bataretse no GUMPHOBYA AMATEKA!!!.
    None se wowe ni gute warara muri HOTEL ntacyo utanze, kuko mwagombaga kurya no kuryama, Ese ni bangahe bapfanye AMAFRANGA, NI Bangahe batanze Amafranga yo kugura kwicwa n' isasu aho gutemwa n'umuhoro,cyangwa ngo badahambwa babona! yego koko nta n'nubwo byagombaga kuba kugera aho ugura urupfu ariko byarabaye kandi birababaje! ni bangahe batabashije kugera muri Hotel de MIlle Collines kandi bari bafite amafranga,
    Iyo wumvise MAKUZA Bertin nyiri ruriya ruganda rukora MATELAS mu Rwanda rwa RWANDAFOAM, avuga ngo yavanye iwe murugo n' abantu bageze kuri 33, niba aho bagereye muri MILLES COLLINES yarakomeje kubatunga ku giti ke? aho yaba afite ukuri; gusa nuko nawe ageraho akivugira ko ya tanze ama CHEQUES ariko intambara irangiye agasanga amafranga ntayo babikuje, yarangiza akisobanura avuga ngo nuko BANQUE NATIONAL (BNR) yari yaramaze kwimukira i GITARAMA, Ese RUSESABAGINA yananiwe kugera I GITARAMA niba yarakoranaga na ba BAGOSORA ?
    Hari undi numvise witwa MUTESA w'umunyamakuru, uriya we arababaje aragendera mu kigare kumugani wa ya mvugo, uriya ni uwo mukarere k'iwacu za NYAKIZU muri Butare, Papa we nibyo koko ni Umututsi ariko nyina ni Umuhutukazi, ngo yavuye muri RADIO RWANDA amanukana n'abandi barinda bagera muri MILLIES COLLINES, niba mwibuka kuva kuri RADIO RWANDA kugera kuri milles ntabwo ari ibintu byari byoroshye urebye na barrieres zari muri kariya gace kuva muri za 90, FPR aho itereye. ese nawe hari amafranga yahaye RUSESABAGINA, ariko numvise avuga abo yise I BIGARASHA nka ya mvugo y'inaha iyo dushaka gutuka ba KAYUMBA, buriya se arashaka kutubwira ko yari azi KAYUMBA, GAHIMA, KAREGEYA, na RUDASINGWA mbere ya 94 ?
    Ese ko ntawe uvuga niba abanya Congos (Les Congolais) babaga hariya hasi kuri Piscine niba nabo barishyuye?
    GASAMAGERA we hamwe nabakobwa 9, ngo bishyuye ibihumbi 180, mu mezi atatu, biteye agahinda!
    ni byinshi umuntu yavuga ariko ngo siko kuyamara, reka duharire ubutaha,
    umwanzuro: abantu turi muguhugu mudusabire iyo utikirije icyo i Bukuru bashaka uba ugowe ; ni ukuguca umutwe nka RWISEREKA,kugushimuta nka KAYITESI , ku kwica nka EMERITHA hamwe na SEMADWINGA
    mudusabire

  • #113

    ukuri (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 16:06)

    ariko se sha rwose ubwo wagiriye akabanga uri ya musaza nubwo yabaye mpemuke ndamuke! Yego indaya ntizigira ibanga ariko gerageza wihangane rwose ntiwambike ubusa uri ya musaza! nibura ugirire uriya mukecuru we.

  • #112

    Sugira paul (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 14:06)

    Ibi bintu by'indagu ni nosense !!! bahutu , batutsi mwiyemeje kurwanya akarengane mushyize hamwe ndetse namwe batwa , ibi byabapfumu ntibibarabarangaze kuko ali ikinyoma kuko ibi ntawabihagazeho , ahubwo muhaguruke turwanye ingoma y'igitugu ya Kagame nagatsiko ke twivuye inyuma !!!duharanire demokrasi , Duhe umukambwe KIGELI IJAMBO , kandi tubaze abaturage icyo bifuza , dushyigikire ubwubahane bwabose , nukwishyira ukizana bishingiye kubutabera , ntimutegereze rero ibyo baraguye kuko ibintu byose nitwe tugomba kubikora ,
    Ibanga : Pierre Rwigema shobora kubona akazi nyuma yamezi make agafatwa agafungwa.

  • #111

    la vérité (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 12:21)

    il est important d’ajouter […] que le Rwanda est aussi le pays des mille leurres, tant la culture du mensonge et de la dissimulation domine toutes les autres chez les Tutsis, et, dans une moindre part, par imprégnation, chez les Hutus...Il y a même un mot en kinyarwanda, la langue nationale, pour exprimer ce concept : ubgenge, qui signifie «une forme particulière d’intelligence, qui vise l’acquisition d’avantages matériels et sociaux par quelque moyen que ce soit. L’équivalent en français le plus acceptable serait fourberie, si ce terme n’avait pas une connotation péjorative, alors que celle d’ubgenge est admirative… A défaut de substantif, le français possède un adjectif assez équivalent : malin» Pierre PEAN

  • #110

    Eheeeeeee!#109 (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 09:02)

    Usibye ko anbitekerezaga muri analysis yanjye ko ziriya ngabo atari amahoro ariko kubihuza n'ubuhanuzi bwa Magayane,ni igitekerezo gikomeye unyunguye!Umwami w'ishyamba yahasesekaye pe!Ndabona ikiruta bose ari ukwiyunga n'Imana naho ibintu byo ntibitworoheye!Naba namwe mwibereye iyo hanze!

  • #109

    Rwandarwejo (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 07:18)

    @101:

    Umuhanuzi nemera ni Magayane! Yagize ati: nimubona Umwami w'ishyamba yaje kwiba, muzamenye ko ingoma Rwabujindiri yarangiye. Niko rero byagenze: Amerika yohereje troops muli Congo, Uganda na Central Africa (for oil, minerals amd more...).

  • #108

    kumahanuro (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 07:13)

    Nasomye ariya mahanuro ya Magayane na Nyirabiyoro. numvise aya Magayane ariyo yumvikana neza nubwo bombi bazimiza. igitangaje, barahuza 100% !! Urebye uko bavuga ingoma n'abazikuriye usanga bitangaje. Nkuyu RUGANZU uzambuka akagera agafatanya n'abavantara mukugaruka barwana mumahanuro ya Nyirabiyoro tumubona mu Mahanuro ya Magayane amuvuga mwizina agira ari Kanyarengwe No 2 wa Kinani azambuka akagera anywane n'abavantara bazagarukana barwana intambara nirangira azitwa umutegetsi wa nyirarureshwa. na Lizinde nawe ngo azafunguzwa nabo ave kungoyi, azicarana nabo igihe gito, ubundi ahunge bamutsinde ishyanga, azagwa hanze y'igihugu. Magayane na Nyirabiyoro bahuriza kuri Ndahindurwa izina bise Rukara rw'igisage.ibya Magayane cyokoze byo mbona biri très detaillés. kandi hari ababifite kuma cassetes yafashwe muri 1980.

  • #107

    Kuli 64 # (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 06:40)

    Nasomye ruriya rubuga rwa Kigeli V Ndahindurwa watweretse ariko sinzi uyu muntu Murengerantwali uwariwe. ubwo niba umuzi watubwira muri make. Kugeza nanubu sinumva impamvu Kigeli atatahukanye n'izamarere muri 1994, cyokoze yakomeje kubivuga mumakuru hirya no hino ngo kwatinya Kagame n'ubutegetsi bwe, ngo azataha aruko yizeye democracy mu Rwanda n'umutekano w'ubuzima bwe. Uyu Murengerantwari se n'umwe muba secretaire be? Inama y'igihugu yaba ifite abiru ? nibande, twashobora kumenya amateka yabo? Erega ubu kumenya iby'amateka y'u Rwanda bisigaye ari ingorabahizi.

  • #106

    nyirabiyoro (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 06:40)

    NB: ufunguye iyi website hariho nibisobanuro by'izi ndagu za nyirabiyoro
    http://jkanya.free.fr/nyirabiyoro.html

  • #105

    version 2 (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 06:36)

    Ihumure riragaragara ariko ndabona bacuranwa, abana bose ntibahabwa ijambo.
    Ndabona RWEGO RUKANGURA-SHYAMBA afite inkoni y’icyuma mu ntoki.
    Ndabona imandwa zisatira ku mulinzi zisakabaka.
    Ese ko ntabona uyoboye imihango umukuru ngombwa arava he?

    Ndabona RUKIRIGITANGWE RWA MUDATINYA ashinze icumu I Bunyabungo
    bavuga amacumu abakuru b’ingabo.
    Ndabona I Karagwe habaye ingaruzwamuheto abavuzi b’amacumu barizihirwa.
    Ko mbona se u Rwanda rushubijwe bene rwo ariko umwezi ntutambe?
    Ko mbona RUTUKU agaruye induru impundu zikabura?

    Dore ubwatsi bwo mu nsi y’inzira bwongeye guhura n’ubwo haruguru yayo
    ariko ndabona RUGILI mu nda y’inyoni ahageze aramira ingoma bamuha ijambo
    atangariza bose ati u Rwanda ndarubogoye.

    Maze u Rwanda rutemba amata n’ubuki.

    " Abafite amatwi nibumve ibigiye kuba ngo u Rwanda rugere ku mahoro asesuye.
    Uliya RUGILI uzataha munda y'inyoni agatanga ihumure ni nde?? "
    Source: CANARD ENCHAINE No.43, page 5

  • #104

    version2 (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 06:36)

    wa KABEJA azagitsindisha iki?[10]
    Ese iriya nyamaswa izatera umurizo I Karagwe undi ikawutera
    I Bunyabungo wowe urayibona?[11]
    Biriya bigenzi bifite uruhu nk’urw’impinja ko RUKARA
    abirebera mw’ihembe azabigamburuza bizagenda bite?
    Ko mbona RUKARA rwonkereje nyina mu muraru, maze rukagwa igihugu igicuri?[12]

    NDABARASA: RUKARA rw’amabuno[13] azime ingoma.
    NYIRABIYORO: Urankangisha RUKARA rw’incike[14] mbona ruzagenda hasi no hejuru
    rukagenda mu nda y’inzovu, harimo ibuye rivuza ubuhuha,
    narwo ruzagwa ishyanga hakagaruka umurambo?
    NDABARASA: RUKARA rundi azaramire ingoma.
    NYIRABIYORO: Urankangisha RUKARA rw’igisage rutazambara ikamba rukaraza ariko
    ntirusamure, maze rukazagaruka mu Rwanda rushaje?[15]
    Dore nta kabuza u Rwanda ruzarara nze.
    Ndabona ba bagabo b’urutuku igihugu bakigabije umubambuzashakwe[16].
    Ese zirajya he CYIMUMUGIZI, RWOGA, RWAMO na KALINGA ![17]
    Dore umunsi imbwa zambaye ingoro, ingoma zivugira mu Marangara,
    ku munsi wa Ngirente, ababyeyi bazifuza kuba ingumba.[18]
    Ubwatsi bwo munsi y’inzira buzahura n’ubwo haruguru yayo maze arugenge NYANGUFI.[19]
    Ariko ariyimbire kuko amugenda runono RUKARA rw’igisunzu rugoreka amagambo[20].

    RUKARA rw’igisunzu rwambaye utubuye tubengerana ku ntugu
    azirenza NYANGUFI, igihugu akigabire umugore[21].
    Ndabona abasangirangendo baryana ijoro n’umunsi bamwe bashyirwa ku ngoyi[22],
    RUGANZU yambuka Akagera ashinga imiganda I Karagwe yunga ubumwe n’abavantara.
    Ariko RUKARA rw’igisunzu rugenda rutseta ikirenge[23] aririwe ntaraye.
    Uru rugamba mbona ararurwana ahereye hehe?[24]
    Aragoreka amagambo ariko niyiyimbire ndabona aguye mu mibyuko
    igihugu gicura imiborogo,intore zigarura ituze,
    intebe ihabwa RUKIRIGITANGWE RWA MUDATINYA akarangwa n’uruziga mu mboni[25].

  • #103

    version 2 (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 06:35)


    VERSION 2

    INDAGU ZA NYIRABIYORO
    -------------------------------------
    Ku batarumva uwitwa Nyirabiyoro, umupfumu wabayeho muri za 1740, dore igice cy’amagambo yuzuye
    ubuhanuzi yateranye na Kigeli III Ndabarasa, Umwami w’u Rwanda wabayeho mu kinyejana cya 18;
    ibi byagiye bihererekanywa par tradition orale, ibi byandukuwe mu kinyamakuru CANARD ENCHAINE
    N° O43 (page 5) cyasohotse mbere y’intambara ya 1994. Icyo kinyamakuru cyandikwaga mu gifransa;
    nyiracyo yandikaga n’ikindi mu Kinyarwanda:”NYABARONGO”.
    Iyi version yasohotse muli za 1993,

    NYIRABIYORO NA NDABARASA (1741)

    ....NYIRABIYORO ati n’ubwo unyise incike ariko nawe ni nk’aho uriyo kuko wabyaye ibigina
    bitazagira icyo bimarira ingoma. Ati nyuma y’ingoma eshatu, niho hazaza RWAGITINYWA[1]
    uzarasana inkundura mu myambi n’ibishirira.
    Ati azaganza ariko igitero azagaba hakurya y’amazi magari kizamusama[2].

    NDABARASA wari umaze umwanya ajunjamye asa nawe n’urimo kubonekerwa asubiza NYIRABIYORO ati
    ntacyo RUTAMU[3] azaramira ingoma.
    NYIRABIYORO: Umunsi se RUTAMU yatsindiriwe kuri SINE[4]
    ikayitera umugeri igatora iyayo, bizagenda bite?
    NDABARASA: Yireke RUSINE[5] yonke.
    NYIRABIYORO: Uravuga se RUKARA mbona rurebera mw’ihembe?[6]
    Umunsi yacumitanye na RUTAMU ko mbona azarutera amacumu
    akarutwikira mu nzu nk’umugome, rukota ku manywa rugakongoka ![7]
    NDABARASA: RUKARA nyirarwo azarusegasira.
    NYIRABIYORO: Urankangisha se RUKARA rutwariye urumoso rutsinze umusaya?
    Ko mbona se ibigenzi bifite uruhu rutukura[8] nk’urw’impinja
    bizaza bitereye amasuka[9] ku ntugu azabikizwa n’iki?
    Ese ko mbona ikinyamaswa gihetse ikindi giturutse mu MUBALI



    http://jkanya.free.fr/nyirabiyoro.html

  • #102

    indagu za nyirabiyoro 4 (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 06:32)

    Indagu igeze aha Rwabugiri wali wicaye ku gisasiro igihe Nyirabiyoro yamuhanuriraga ibi byose.
    Yasabye ko yabanza akibambika, yaza kwibambura umunyakaragwekazi akagumya kumubwira ibisigaye,
    akamubwira n'intsinzi. Nyirabiyoro abanyagikari bamujyanye kumutegurira aho aryama,
    Umwe muri bo asubiye gufata amategeko ku mwami, asanga uyu ameze
    nk'ubabaye kubera indagu Nyirabiyoro yari amaze kumugezaho. Uwo munyagikari asohoka atekereza ati
    uriya mugore usize arakaje umwami akoze ishyano. Amucumita ikimito mu rwano amwica atarangirije
    Kigeli indagu, ubucurabwenge bwari busigaye bubura butyo.

    None se ko ibindi byose Nyirabiyoro yavuze twabibonye uko bingana,
    ubu twizere ko amahoro yavuzwe agiye kutugera ho ?

  • #101

    indagu za nyirabiyoro 3 (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 06:31)

    Rwoga, Rwamo na Kalinga. Umunsi imbwa zambaye ingoro, ingoma zivugira mu Marangara, ku munsi
    wa Ngirente, ababyeyi bazifuza kuba ingumba, ubwatsi bwo mu nsi y'inzira buzahura n'ubwo
    haruguru. U Rwanda ruzahabwa Nyangufi.
    Azamugenda runono Rukara rw 'igisunzu ruvuga rugoreka amagambo. Ruzamwirenza Rukara rwambaye
    utubuye ku ntugu, igihugu rukigabize umugore. Ariko urugo ruvuga umugore ruvuga umuhoro.
    Dore abasangirangendo bararyana ijoro n'umunsi. Bamwe bashyizwe ku ngoyi Ruganzu yambuka
    akagera, ashinga imiganda ishyanga, afatana urunana n'abavantara...
    Dore Rukara rw'igisunzu rugenda ruseta ikirenge aririwe ntaraye.

    Uru rugamba mubona ararutsinda ate ? Inkiko zirugalijwe. Aragoreka amagambo ariko niyiyimbire.
    Dore bazamutsinda mu mibyuko igihugu gicure imiborogo. Intore zizagarura ituze intebe
    zizicazeho Rukirigitangwe rwa Mudatinya umugabo wambaye uruziga mu mboni. Ihumure riragaragara
    ariko se ko mbona bacuranwa abana bose ntibahabwe ijambo? Dore Rwego rukangura-shyamba azuye umugara.

    Ese izi mandwa ko mbona zisatiye ku Mulînzi zisakabaka umukuru-ngombwa azayobora imihango ate ?
    Ndabona umugabo usheshe akanguhe uvuga isi igatigita ababyeyi bakamuha impundu. Dore yegereye
    ku mulinzi Ruterandongozi. Ashagawe n'abaturage ibihumbi n'ibihumbagiza. Ndabona Rutuku amusanga
    afashe uruboho mu ntoki, afashe ijambo ahumuliza abaturage, impundu zivuga urwanaga.

  • #100

    indagu za nyirabiyoro 2 (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 06:30)

    Yari afite basaza be KABARE na
    RUHINANKIKO, bagambiriye kwambura ingoma MIBAMBWE RUTARINDWA,bakayiha mwishywa wabo YUHI MUSINGA.
    Niko byagenze rero maze bafatanyije na mushiki wabo KANJOGERA, bararikoroza ku Rucunshu,
    bica RUTARINDWA, YUHI MUSINGA yima ingoma, nyina aba umugabekazi ku izina rya NYIRAYUHI.
    NYIRABIYORO yaraguriye RWABUGILI kandi iby'umwaduko w'abazungu n'ibintu bizawukurikira:
    NYANGUFI uzambura ubutegetsi abanyiginya umunsi imbwa zambaye ingoro ingoma zikavugira mu
    Marangara. Aragura ko Nyangufi azicwa na RUKARA rw'igisunzu rugenda ruseta ikirenge,
    ruzateza u Rwanda akaga umunsi ruzagwa mu mibyuko, amaraso akameneka ari menshi.
    NYIRABIYORO abwira KIGELI ati: "Koko uli KIGELI kigera ikirenge mu cya RWOGERA".
    Uragura inkiko uganza u Mulera, uragaruza mu Bushubi no mu Bishugi, uragenga u Buhoma,
    mu Buberuka no mu Bwanacyambwe, urahaca ibiraro, Nyaruguru no mu Buganza bagatura amahoro.
    Urarwagura u Rwanda nyamara urakorera ubusa.

    RWABUGIRI, yireke Rusine yonke.. NYIRABIYORO Rusine rw'incike ruzima inka rutazibyarira
    ruzagenda hasi no hejuru, maze rukazagwa igihugu igicuri ? Dore bazaza abagabo b'urutuku rwera,
    bitwaje imyuko kandi bagenda bicaye. Bazakigabira umubambuzashakwe.. Zirajya hehe Cyimumugizi,

  • #99

    indagu za nyirabiyoro1 (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 06:29)

    Nyirabiyoro ati : "Rukara rw'Igisunzu ruzagwa mu mibyuko, igihugu gicure imiborogo.
    NYIRABIYORO yari umunyakaragwekazi, akaba n' umupfumu wari uzwiho ubuhanga busesuye.
    Ku ngoma ya Kigeli IV Rwabugiri, w'ari warasimbuye Mutara Il Rwogera, NYIRABIYORO yari afite
    imyaka 55. Icyo gihe (ahagana mu w'i1880), igihugu cyali gifite ibibazo ku nkiko, ikirwa cy'Ijwi
    cyarigometse, gitegekwa na NKUNDIYE wa KABEGO.
    Mu Ndorwa no mu Bunyabungo barigometse, imyaka itakera mu buryo bushimishije, u Rwanda ubona
    rwugarijwe n'akaga. KIGELI IV RWABUGIRI atumiza NYIRABIYORO ngo ahanure insinzi y'ako kaga.
    Kubera ko RWABUGIRI yateguraga gutera Ijwi mu Ndorwa n'Ubunyabungo akahagarura,
    NYIRABIYORO amuragurira ko azabatsinda.

    Amubwira n'amaza, amumenyesha ko ingoma izahinduka mu gihe kitari kure, abana be RUTARINDWA na
    MUSINGA bakayirwanira bigacika ku Rucunshu. Koko rero ahagana mu mpera z'umwaka w'1896 MIBAMBWE
    RUTARINDWA yimye ingoma (RWABUGIRI amaze gutanga) bamuha KANJOGERA (nyina wa YUHI MUSINGA)
    ho umugabekazi, bafata izina ry'ubutegetsi NYIRAMIBAMBWE

  • #98

    nyirabiyoro 1 (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 06:27)

    VERSION 1

    Nyirabiyoro ati : "Rukara rw'Igisunzu ruzagwa mu mibyuko, igihugu gicure imiborogo.
    NYIRABIYORO yari umunyakaragwekazi, akaba n' umupfumu wari uzwiho ubuhanga busesuye.
    Ku ngoma ya Kigeli IV Rwabugiri, w'ari warasimbuye Mutara Il Rwogera, NYIRABIYORO yari afite
    imyaka 55. Icyo gihe (ahagana mu w'i1880), igihugu cyali gifite ibibazo ku nkiko, ikirwa cy'Ijwi
    cyarigometse, gitegekwa na NKUNDIYE wa KABEGO.
    Mu Ndorwa no mu Bunyabungo barigometse, imyaka itakera mu buryo bushimishije, u Rwanda ubona
    rwugarijwe n'akaga. KIGELI IV RWABUGIRI atumiza NYIRABIYORO ngo ahanure insinzi y'ako kaga.
    Kubera ko RWABUGIRI yateguraga gutera Ijwi mu Ndorwa n'Ubunyabungo akahagarura,
    NYIRABIYORO amuragurira ko azabatsinda.

    Amubwira n'amaza, amumenyesha ko ingoma izahinduka mu gihe kitari kure, abana be RUTARINDWA na
    MUSINGA bakayirwanira bigacika ku Rucunshu. Koko rero ahagana mu mpera z'umwaka w'1896 MIBAMBWE
    RUTARINDWA yimye ingoma (RWABUGIRI amaze gutanga) bamuha KANJOGERA (nyina wa YUHI MUSINGA)
    ho umugabekazi, bafata izina ry'ubutegetsi NYIRAMIBAMBWE. Yari afite basaza be KABARE na
    RUHINANKIKO, bagambiriye kwambura ingoma MIBAMBWE RUTARINDWA,bakayiha mwishywa wabo YUHI MUSINGA.
    Niko byagenze rero maze bafatanyije na mushiki wabo KANJOGERA, bararikoroza ku Rucunshu,
    bica RUTARINDWA, YUHI MUSINGA yima ingoma, nyina aba umugabekazi ku izina rya NYIRAYUHI.
    NYIRABIYORO yaraguriye RWABUGILI kandi iby'umwaduko w'abazungu n'ibintu bizawukurikira:
    NYANGUFI uzambura ubutegetsi abanyiginya umunsi imbwa zambaye ingoro ingoma zikavugira mu
    Marangara. Aragura ko Nyangufi azicwa na RUKARA rw'igisunzu rugenda ruseta ikirenge,
    ruzateza u Rwanda akaga umunsi ruzagwa mu mibyuko, amaraso akameneka ari menshi.

  • #97

    Bihibindi (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 04:24)

    Igihe cya genocide cyararangiye, abayikoze barahanwe, kandi niba hari abasigaye nabo bazahanwa. Icyo dushaka ubu ni DEMOCRACY. Gushyikiriza Kagame urukiko agasobanura ubwicanyi yakoreye Abanyarwanda.

  • #96

    #70 kugeza #94 (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 03:42)

    Murarushya n'ubusa ntabwo tuzacibwa intege n'ibi mushyiraho. Tuzi guhitamo ibikwiye gusomwa. Kandi uru rubuga rurinzwe n'Iyakare. Guhozaho idafite aho bihuriye n'inkuru y'umunsi bigaragaza ubushobozi buke mu ruhando rw'ibitekerezo. Mwemere ko kabananiye, mureke guta igihe mushyira ku rubuga ibyo muzi neza ko bitazasomwa. Mukomeje kugaragaza ubwenge buke. Birababaje pe!!!!!

  • #95

    HABYARIMANA JUVENAL (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 03:23)

    Indwara y’igicuri ni imwe mu zifata ubwonko ariko si uburwayi bwo mu mutwe bamwe bakunze kwita ibisazi gusa ngo kunywa inzoga nyinshi bishobora gutera kwangirika k’ubwonko bikaba byavamo ibimenyetso by’igicuri.

    Nk’uko bitangazwa na Dr Osée Sebatunzi, Umuyobozi Mukuru w’Ibitaro bya Kabgayi, ngo igicuri (epilepsy) ni indwara ifata ubwonko, uyirwaye akarangwa no kugagara bishobora kumara kuva ku masegonda kugera ku minota mike, akumva atameze neza mu mubiri mu gihe cy’akanya gato ku buryo n’iyo birangiye umubaza ibyo yari arimo akaba atabikubwira.

    Dr Sebatunzi akomeza avuga ko igicuri kitandura nk’uko abantu benshi babyibeshyaho aho birinda kwegera umuntu ugagajwe na cyo ngo yabahumekeraho cyangwa akabasurira bityo bakayandura. Avuga kandi ko umurwayi w’igicuri ari umuntu nk’abandi kandi ko umuryango we ugomba kumufata nk’abandi barwayi baba barwaye indwara iyo ari yo yose.

    Ni gute Inzoga zishobora kuba intandaro y’igicuri ?

    Inzoga na zo zagarutsweho mu kiganiro Umuganga.com wagiranye na Dr Sebatunzi kuko ngo iyo zibaye nyinshi zifata ubwonko zikaba zabwangiza maze igihe icyo ari cyo cyose umuntu akaba yagaragaza ibimenyetso by’igicuri biturutse ku nzoga zirenze urugero.

    Dr Sebatunzi avuga ko Indwara y’igicuri ishobora guterwa n’ibintu bitandukanye harimo uburwayi nka mugiga, gukomereka k’ubwonko cyangwa ubumuga bw’ubwonko mu gihe bwarimo bukura. Akenshi impamvu ntiba izwi ndetse ishobora gutangirira mu bwana hagati y’imyaka 4 n’imyaka 8 cyangwa se umuntu akuze bitewe n’izo mpamvu twavuze haruguru.

    Igicuri kandi gishobora guturuka no ku gukoresha imwe mu miti ikomeye nk’ihabwa abarwayi bo mu mutwe, chroloquine ndetse n’imiti y’igituntu, igihe ifashwe mu buryo bunyuranyije n’amategeko ya muganga.

    Iyi ndwara ngo irica ariko cyane cyane iyo uyirwaye yegera umuriro cyangwa ahandi hantu haba ibyamukomeretsa, bityo bikaba ari ngombwa kwirinda bene aho hantu.

  • #94

    GEORGES RUGGIU=RUDAKEMWA AGATERAHAMWE (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 03:20)

    In May 2000, Georges Ruggiu, a Belgian journalist formerly with Radio television libre des mille collines (RTLM) in Rwanda, pleaded guilty to inciting killings during the genocide of 1994. At the time of writing, three more Rwandan journalists also face genocide charges at the International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda. [1] This is hate speech at its most extreme.

    The role of RTLM in the Rwanda genocide has been widely discussed. But how relevant is it for election administrators trying to wrestle with the problem of hate speech in an election campaign?

    The first point to note is that RTLM was not an ordinary radio station reporting the extreme views of others. It was an instrument of Hutu extremists who planned and instigated the mass killings of Tutsi. Hence it is not directly relevant to the issue of campaign reporting, where extreme statements may be made and then relayed through the news media.

    Second, RTLM played two quite distinct functions at different stages of its existence. In its early months, up until the beginning of the genocide in April 1994, it broadcast a form of subtle and entertaining anti-Tutsi propaganda. (The evidence for the proposition that it was entertaining is that the Tutsi guerrillas of the Rwandan Patriotic Front preferred listening to RTLM than to their own radio station.) But once the genocide started, the character of RTLM's broadcasts changed. Then it began giving details of those who were to be hunted down and killed - right down to individual descriptions and car number plates. [2] This was not so much hate speech as direct involvement in the killing. It is not exactly clear why Ruggiu pleaded guilty before the International Tribunal, but it is more likely to relate o the latter part than the former.

    Thirdly, the Rwanda genocide was, of course, unique and its circumstances are highly unlikely to recur elsewhere. However, the experience of the radio in the genocide does hold an important lesson. In 1989, the Rwandan government embarked on a reluctant democratisation under international pressure. One of the many institutional reforms it failed to carry out was of the broadcasting system. Hence there was no independent publicly-funded broadcaster reflecting the views of all communities - instead there was the virulently pro-Hutu Radio Rwanda. There was no independent and transparent process for licensing private broadcasters. Instead the only private broadcaster was RTLM, with its propaganda for genocide. Of course, reform of broadcasting would not have stopped the genocide. But the existence of a variety of viewpoints over the airwaves would have helped to neutralize the effect of RTLM and Radio Rwanda. That is the most useful lesson of Rwanda for election administrators and broadcasters elsewhere. [3]

  • #93

    BAGAMBIKI EMMANUEL (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 03:16)

    Binyuze mu Kigo cy’Ubushakashatsi cy’Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi(RAB), ku bufatanye n’umushinga ugamije gukwirakwiza imbuto nshya z’ibijumba zikungahaye kuri vitamine A, DONATA mu magambo ahinnye, ubu abahinzi bo mu turere twa Rusizi na Nyamasheke bamaze kwigishwa uburyo ibijumba byabyazwamo imigati, keke, ibisugiti n’ibindi byo kurya bitandukanye byanabikwa mu gihe kirerekire.

    Iyo gahunda itangiriye ku makoperative asanzwe akorana n’uwo mushinga DONATA ugamije gukwirakwiza imbuto nshya z’ibijumba zikungahaye kuri Vitamini A. Kwigishwa uburyo ibijumba byabyazwamo imigati, amandazi, keke, ibisuguti kimwe n’ibindi byo kurya bitandukanye bishobora kubikwa mu gihe kirekire ngo bikaba bije mu rwego rwo kurushaho guteza imbere icyo gihingwa, hanaharanirwa ko cyateza imbere umuhinzi by’umwihariko.

    Madamu Kankundiye Lidiya ukuriye uwo mushinga asobanura ko impamvu bagize icyo gitekerezo ari uko bazi ko ibijumba ari ibihingwa bidakunda kubikika byakwera bikerera icyarimwe ari byinshi akenshi ugasanga nta n’isoko bifite, ibiciro bikagwa, ugasanga umuturage ubihinga ntacyo yungutse kandi yaragize imvune nyinshi abihinga.

    Akaba yarasabye abahawe aya masomo yo kubyaza ibijumba mo ibindi biribwa bibikika igihe kirekire kujya babyigisha bigakwirakwira mu bahinzi bose, ikindi iyi mbuto nshya ikungahaye kuri vitamine A irimo gukwirakwizwa bakayikoresha kandi bakayifata neza kuko ntago ari imbuto isanzwe kuko vitamine A ifite akamaro kanini.

    Shingiro Jean Bosco, umushakashatisi muri RAB, umwe mu batangaga amasomo kuri abo bahinzi, mu butumwa na we yabahaye ni uko ubwo bumenyi babugeza ku bandi, anibutsa ko ibikoresho bikenerwa biba bidahenze kandi ko byanorohera buri wese kubibona. Ku ruhande rw’abahawe ayo masomo yo kubyaza ibijumbamo ibindi biribwa bitandukanye na bo bemeje ko ayo masomo bahawe ari ingirakamaro kandi ko ayo mahirwe batazayapfusha ubusa, aho bazanakangurira abandi akamaro k’ibijumba.

    Aya mahugurwa muri Rusizi abayitabiriye akaba ari amakoperative yo muri ako karere n’aka Nyamasheke ubu banafite umusaruro wakomotse kuri iyo mbuto nshya bahawe

  • #92

    FAUSTIN TWAGIRAMUNGU (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 03:14)

    Umushumba wa Diyosezi gatolika ya Cyangugu Musenyeri Yohani Damaseni Bimenyimana yasohoye itangazo ryamagana ibimaze iminsi byandikwa n’abapadiri 2 baba mu Bufaransa bisebya u Rwanda. Musenyeri Yohani Damascene avuga ko Abanyarwanda badakwiye gufata ubutumwa bwandikwa n’abo bapadiri 2 nk’ukuri kuko batabitumwe na Kiliziya gatolika mu Rwanda.
    Ubusanzwe ngo birabujijwe ko uwihaye Imana akora imirimo ya politiki usibye iyo abiherewe uburenganzira n’ubuyobozi bwa kiliziya.Ibyo bitandukanye n’ibyandikwa ku mbuga za internet n’abapadiri 2 bakomoka muri dioseze ya Cyangugu baba mu Bufaransa. Mu butumwa bwohererejwe Radio Rwanda na Musenyeri mukuru wa Diyosezi ya Cyangugu, buvuga ko ibyo abo ba padiri bandika bidafite aho bihuriye na kiliziya gatolika, ahubwo ko ari ibitekerezo byabo bwite. Abo bapadiri Thomas Nahimana na Fortunas Rudakemwa bashinze urubuga rwa Internet rubaho inyandiko zigaragaza ko mu Rwanda ari mu icuraburindi,nta cyiza kihaba. Ni narwo rubuga rwakoreshejwe gusohora inyandiko ziherekejwe n’amashusho y’urukozasoni yatumye uwari ministre wa sport n’umuco mu Rwanda Joseph Habineza yegura ku mirimo ye.
    Musenyeri Bimenyimana Yohani Damascene mu nyandiko ye anenga abo bihaye Imana kuko birengagiza nkana amateka yaroshye u Rwanda muri Jenocide. Urwo rubuga kuri ubu rukoreshwa nk’ijwi rya bamwe mu banyapolitiki bibera mu mahanga batemera ibyo u Rwanda rugezeho.
    Nyuma y’amezi ageze kuri 4 urwo rubuga rusomwaho inkuru mu Rwanda, nibwo bwa mbere umuyobozi wo ku rwego rwo hejuru muri Kiliziya gatolika mu Rwanda anenze kumugararo ibikubiye muri izo nyandiko. Ibi kandi biriyongera ku makuru yavugwaga ko hari bamwe mu bayobozi b’imiryango remezo muri diyosezi ya Cyangugu baba bigisha ubutumwa bwoherezwa n’abo bapadiri. Inyandiko ya Musenyeri Bimenyimana Yohani Damascene ikaba ije ishimangira ko Kiliziya Gatulika ikemanga abo bapadiri kandi itari kumwe nabo mu byo batangaza kuri urwo rubuga rwa interineti.


  • #91

    THOMAS NAHIMANA THE SAME IDEOLOGY LIKE BARAYAGWIZA (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 03:11)

    Speaker: GASPARD GAHIGI, Editor-in-Chief for RTLM

    I would like to give the floor to BARAYAGWIZA. According to you, is the consideration of belonging to the Hutu or Tutsi ethnic group inborn?

    Speaker: JEAN-BOSCO BARAYAGWIZA, Co-commissioner of RTLM

    Before I answer that question, I will first go back to Ravi’s statement. I would even think that the answer is in there. You asked us the following question: “Is there anyone among you who does not believe in the existence of ethnic groups?” Nobody gave an answer, but Ravi surprised me when he affirmed that “the ethnic groups do not exist,” because he said that there were so many intermarriages that one cannot distinguish a Hutu from a Tutsi. He further said that those who might have remained pure, both the Hutus and Tutsis, are in equal numbers. I would therefore like to prove that Ravi’s assertions, which probably reflect what he thinks, are wrong, or he is telling lies. Even in 1958, King RUDAHIGWA, the then monarch, asked himself the same question: “Who is a Hutu, who is a Tutsi?” This was before the Hutus began to gain property and becoming wealthy. He posed the same question by saying: “Stop saying that the Hutus and the Tutsis still exist, because you are no longer able to distinguish them.” That was in 1958! He was even supported by his close colleagues; I remember very well that GITERA and KAYIBANDA always said that they had a problem, that it was the Hutus who had that problem, that it was not true to say that the Hutus no longer existed, that there was no such a thing as a Hutu problem, That king was supported by a high-ranking personality of the time, one Bishop BIGIRUMWAMI, who also claimed that they [Hutus] did not exist. Who has proof of the existence of the Hutus, or of the Tutsis? As I said earlier, those words were being said at a time when the Hutus had no property, when they could not own cattle, when they could not have fine features like those of the Tutsis who enjoyed a certain level of well-being. Now, Ravi takes us back to 1958, and recasts the question within the context of that period, but he says that the people are so cross-bred that one cannot distinguish them. It is true some of them are of mixed blood, and Mrs. MBONAMPEKA also said so, but they make up a negligible proportion. Some did not accept the cross-breeding, whereas others did not like it! In general, what I would say about this issue of ethnic mixing is that it has been one-sided.

  • #90

    PROPHETE UMUHANUZI GENOCIDE IDEOLOGY LIKE RTLM (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 03:10)

    RTLM, standing for Radio-Télévision Libre des Milles Collines or Free Radio & Television of the Thousand Hills, was probably the most successful hate radio station in the history of the world. It was a privately owned station (though it did receive funding from the state-run Radio Rwanda) and broadcast from 8 July 1993 to 31 July 1994. It was staffed exclusively by Hutus and made no secret of its extreme bias against the Tutsi minority. Not only did it broadcast anti-Tutsi propaganda, it explicitly directed that they be exterminated, encouraged those who were doing the extermination and even read out known locations of Tutsis with orders to kill them.

    RTLM was based in Kigali and broadcasted uninterruptedly throughout the entirety of the genocide, churning out new news of massacres and such. At roadblocks in Kigali, the most common items seen were weapons and radios. Even before the genocide, it broadcast blatantly biased propaganda against the RPF and the Tutsis themselves. It took advantage of the fact that almost every Rwandan had a radio in his home. People all across the nation would listen to RTLM to get their “unbiased” news; even when it became clear that the Hutu Power government was being pushed out, people would carry portable radios with them and listen to RTLM as they left their homes and ran for Zaïre.

    The concept and the threat of RTLM were not unknown to Western governments, who on more than one occasion considered jamming the transmissions. This never happened due to concerns about money and, more often, worries that jamming a privately-owned radio station was a denial of free speech. In retrospect, there is little debate that a serious mistake was made in not acting.

    After the genocide, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda found the two directors of RTLM, Ferdinand Nahimana and Jean-Bosco Barayagwiza, as well as Hassan Ngeze, a major shareholder and editor of RTLM’s magazine equivalent, Kangura, as well as Georges Ruggiu, one of their most prominent reporters, guilty of genocide, complicity in genocide, crimes against humanity and incitement of genocide, among other things. Ruggiu was given twelve years, and the others life sentences, though Barayagwiza’s was reduced to 35 years due to rights violations in bringing him to the trial.

    The ICTR, in making its decisions, gathered together an immense amount of evidence in the form of taped recordings of RTLM broadcasts from the US State Department, Rwandese Ministry of Information, Reporters Without Borders and several private donors. The original broadcasts, done in Kinyarwanda, were transcribed and [sometimes] translated for use in the trial.

  • #89

    RTLM RADIO=PROPHETE UMUHANUZI ABICANYI (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 03:07)

    However, these transcriptions are not readily available. The tapes themselves were destroyed in a fire in Arusha in 2004. The transcripts are available through the ICTR’s ‘webdrawer,’ an incredibly complex, confusing and slow website prone to power shortages at nature’s discretion, though still a fantastic resource. All evidence used in the trials as well as records of the trials, i.e. minutes, charges, subpoenas, decisions, etc. are stored there as PDFs. This includes the RTLM transcripts. Actually accessing them on the site is often impossible (the site is down at least a third of the times I’ve checked) and always painstakingly slow (the download time for a three megabyte PDF file borders on five minutes). Even once they have downloaded, the files are of poor quality, sometimes out of order, often with writing all over them, and almost always crookedly scanned. The mission of this section is to solve that.

    My goal is, in short, to take every tape in the ICTR database and convert it to a more accessible text form. I would then like to proofread them and post them on the site alongside the original PDF file from the database. However, there are some complications. first off, most of the transcripts are in Kinyarwanda and were not translated. Many of those that were translated were translated into French, and of those only some were converted to English. All original PDF transcripts will be included, but as I speak neither French nor Kinyarwanda, only those which have been translated into English will be published as text.

    This will not be a quick, let alone an immediate process. Running the files through the text-recognition program and editing them is fairly time consuming. For a list of all those which are currently up, click here.

    For a ‘glossary’ of terms, place names, etc. that may be useful while reading through the transcripts, click here.

    *Note: After the first four tapes, I have decided to scrap the idea of proofreading the transcripts. I will quickly look through them to correct any obvious errors and format them, but it is safe to say that the resource will be no less valuable if it contains a few typos.


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    It is my understanding that since (a) the authors and once-copyright holders of all these tapes are currently serving life sentences, (b) they are universally agreed to have incited genocide and (c) the transcriptions and translations are works of the United Nations, any copyright which may have protected these documents is void and they are in the public domain.


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  • #88

    @Mpogoma (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 02:25)

    Aho wansubizaga nka #7:

    Uti mbibwiwe n'iki ko atari umucikacumu? Nari nabivuze ariko. Biroroshye kureba inyandiko ye kugirango menye (tumenye) uwo ariwe.
    Ese uzi urugero rw'imvugo ngo:
    Umuhutu aravuga ngo "ikibyindi gisa n'umunnyi" mu gihe imfura ivuga ngo "Inyana ni iya mweru"?
    Urabona Mpogoma izo mvugo zose zivuga kimwe ariko ni style zitandukanye kandi ziba muri buri wese nta ruhare abigizemo. Weekend nziza kandi.

  • #87

    Abapadiri Nahimana na Rudakemwa bandikira leprophete bari bakwiriye gukurikiranwa (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 02:23)

    Musenyeri John Bimenyimana Damascene yavuze ko Padiri Nahimana yagiye hanze avuga ko umutekano we utameze neza mu mwaka wa 2005, naho Padiri Rudakemwa yagiye hanze mu mwaka 2004, avuga ko agiye gusura abavandimwe be baba hanze. Bagezeyo nibwo batangiye kujya bandika inyandiko zisebya igihugu.

    Musenyeri John Bimenyimana yavuze ko kugirango aba ba Padiri bahabwe ibihano muri Kiliziya Gatolika ko bitwara igihe kitari gitoya kuko ngo babanza kubagoragoza babagira inama, ariko bitavuze ko igihugu kitagomba kubakurikirana nk’abaturage basanzwe ku byaha baba baregwa byo kubuza umudendezo igihugu.

    Twabibutsa ko Padiri Thomas yahoze muri paruwasi ya Muyange naho Padiri Rudakemwa yahoze ayobora Seminar nto yitiriwe Mutagatifu Aloys I Cyangugu.

    Iyi nama yabereye ku cyicaro gikuru cy’abepisikopi mu Rwanda yabanje kuba mu muhezo, irangiye bagirana ikiganiro n’ abanyamakuru, aho Musenyeri Mbonyintege Simaragde yatangaje ko ibyo bigagaho byari bijyanye n’ubufatanye hagati ya leta na Kiliziya Gatolika mu burezi bwo mu mashuri ndetse n’amavuriro aho bagiye kongera ubufatanye mu guteza imbere igihugu. Musenyeri Mbonyintege yavuze ko bafitanye imikoranire myiza na Leta.

    Abepisikopi bitabiriye iyi nama ni Mbonyintege Simaragde umwepisikopi wa Kabyayi, Jean Damascene Bimenyimana umwepisikopi wa Cyangugu, Thadee Ntihinyurwa Arikepisikopi wa Kigali, Filipo Rukamba wa Butare, Nzakamwita Seriviliyani wa Byumba na Alexi Habiyambere umwepisikopi wa Nyundo.

  • #86

    ABAKIRISITU BA PAROISSE YA MIBIRIZI (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 02:22)

    Abapadiri Nahimana na Rudakemwa bandikira leprophete bari bakwiriye gukurikiranwa-Abepisikopi

    Abapadiri babiri Nahimana Thomas na Rudakemwa Fortunatus bandika ku rubuga rwa leprophete ngo ntabwo bari hejuru y’amategeko y’uRwanda. Ibi byatangajwe na Musenyeri John Bimenyimana Damascene, mu kiganiro cyahuje Minisitiri w’ubutegetsi bw’igihugu Musoni James n’abasenyeri ba Kiriziya Gatorika bo mu Rwanda ndetse n’abanyamakuru kuri uyu wa Kane tariki ya 12 Gicurasi 12, ku cyicaro gikuru cy’Abepisikopi mu Rwanda mu Karere ka Nyarugenge.

    Musenyeri John Bimenyimana yabwiye abanyamakuru ko Padiri Nahimana Thomas na Rudakemwa Fortunatus bagomba gukurikiranwa nk’abaturage basanzwe kuba batanga inyigisho mbi mu baturage babashishikariza kwanga ubutegetsi buriho, ko batari hejuru y’amategeko y’u Rwanda.

    Musenyeri Bimenyimana yavuze ko Kiriziya Gatolika yamaganira kure ko izo nyigisho zitajyanye n’amahame ya Kiliziya Gatorika. Ngo nk’uko aherutse koherereza abasenyeri bose b’u Rwanda, n’abakirisitu bo mu Rwanda ndetse akoherereza ibarwa abasenyeri b’ I Burayi aho abo ba Padiri babarizwa, abamenyesha ko badashyigikiye inyigisho mbi zitangwa zinyuze ku rubuga leprophete ko bazamaganira kure kandi ko zisebya igihugu.

    Musenyeri John Bimenyimana Damascene yavuze ko Padiri Nahimana yagiye hanze avuga ko umutekano we utameze neza mu mwaka wa 2005, naho Padiri Rudakemwa yagiye hanze mu mwaka 2004, avuga ko agiye gusura abavandimwe be baba hanze. Bagezeyo nibwo batangiye kujya bandika inyandiko zisebya igihu

  • #85

    PROPHETE UMUHANUZI PROPAGANDA AND GENOCIDE 9 (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 02:17)

    Perpetrators of genocide in the twentieth century have frequently depended on radio propaganda to encourage mass participation and acquiescence in their designs. The human rights community has known this for a very long time and the international community has recently awakened to this reality. The social, political, and economic conditions that existed in Germany in the 1930s and Rwanda in the 1990s potentiated radio broadcasting as a tool for breaking the bonds of solidarity among people and legitimating behavior that, under other circumstances, would have been considered outrageous. The direct political effects of radio did more than reinforce existing orientations. They contributed to the mobilization of millions around a new program which insisted that their former friends and neighbors were not fully human or worthy of the privileges of citizenship, or, in the extreme case, life.

    AN EPILOGUE

    And what about Wole Soyinka, the man, whom we last saw as a child, contemplating the mysteries of "the box who needed no answer." He was in Montreal in March 1997, travelling the lecture circuit to raise money for a project dear to his heart: the purchase of FM mobile stations to expand the listening audience in Nigeria of Radio Kudirat, an underground shortwave radio transmitter aimed at bringing his message of restoring democracy to millions of Nigerians. "That radio," Soyinka told a New York Times correspondent, "has been the single most effective counter against the authority of the regime. I mean, they’ve really been hysterical over the effect of the radio. Until that moment, they had total control of the media, apart from the underground press." (Zia Jaffrey, "The Writer in Exile as ‘Opposition Diplomat,’" International Herald Tribune, 2 May 1997, p.24.) Perhaps, after all that has happened, radio can still be salvaged as a tool to promote the dignity and honor of the human race.

  • #84

    PROPHETE UMUHANUZI PROPAGANDA AND GENOCIDE 8 (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 02:16)

    Programs to extend broadcasting that affirms human rights should be in place before a genocide has started, operated by personnel with a deep understanding of the cultures they address, and broadcasting in the languages spoken by the majority of the people. While massive outflows of refugees are the surest signs that human rights are being violated, human rights broadcasting is needed before that point is reached. Radio dramas and talk shoes for adults and children have an important role to play in such efforts.

    In the past, common sense suggested that when a war was underway, and both sides operated radio stations, the potential victims of a genocide would be alerted to their peril. History shows that this is not true and that human rights broadcasts may be essential to warning the victims of their danger. Little effort was made in Allied radio broadcasts during the Holocaust either to warn Jews that their lives were in danger or to rally their neighbors to assist them. And in Rwanda, the controllers of the RPF’s weakly powered radio station, Radio Muhabura (Radio Beacon), apparently never called on Tutsi to flee or warned Tutsi that the killers were not respecting churches as sanctuaries, a humanitarian convention that the perpetrators in the genocidal killings of the period 1959-1962 had observed. In 1994, Tutsi who fled to churches because they recalled that they had been safe havens in the genocide of 1959 were trapped and murdered. Apparently for political reasons, RPF radio broadcasters tried to avoid discussing the ethnic and political basis of the killings, talking about the "Rwandese," and not about "Tutsi," doing everything possible to minimize the differences between "Hutu" and "Tutsi," even at the cost of Tutsi lives.

    THE UNFULFILLED ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY

    IN THE FIGHT AGAINST GENOCIDE

    Recent experience in Rwanda, as well as component parts of the former Yugoslavia, indicate that human rights radio broadcasting will operate most effectively if the international community undertakes a series of parallel steps: (1) shows its willingness to back up its warnings against initiating genocides through the development of the means and, when necessary, the implementation of appropriate coercive measures; (2) follows through on threats to punish the perpetrators of genocide by renewing the mandate of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, enforcing its authority, and insuring that its work is discharged in a thorough and fully competent manner; (3) vigorously pursues prosecution of the perpetrators of past genocides and gross violations of human rights, such as the leaders of the Khmer Rouge, even when regional politics may discourage such action; (4) announces that it is monitoring and transcribing hate broadcasts for use in the future prosecution of the offenders if a genocide ensues; and (5) implements its capacity to jam or destroy transmitters broadcasting hate propaganda when genocides are imminent.

  • #83

    PROPHETE UMUHANUZI PROPAGANDA AND GENOCIDE 7 (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 02:15)

    so that foreign broadcasts could not be heard, a point emphasized by David Welch in his study of politics and propaganda in the Third Reich. Welch tells us that by the beginning of the Second World War, over 70 per cent of all German households owned a radio receiver and that this was the highest percentage anywhere in the world. According to the German historian Peter Reichel, when the Nazis came to power in 1933, four million German homes possessed radio receivers. In 1938, their numbers had risen to nine million, and in 1942 there were 16 million.

    In Rwanda, radios and batteries to power them were too expensive for most peasants to afford until the 1980s, when the Rwandan government obtained foreign aid for the purchase and distribution of radios, arguing that they were necessary to promote the dissemination of modern farming technology. The radios were then given away during election campaigns. The manner through which radios were distributed in Rwanda is a subject that has received little attention from scholars and warrants further research. The Rwandan government, like Germany’s under the Nazis, invested heavily in powerful radio transmitters and repeater facilities to blanket the country with radio broadcasts. Mobile radio broadcasting facilities were purchased overseas by the Rwandan perpetrators and used very effectively after the RPF expelled the Akazu from Kigali.

    RADIO AS AN INSTRUMENT TO FIGHT GENOCIDE

    AND PROMOTE HUMAN RIGHTS

    In an earlier essay, "Hate Radio in Rwanda," I emphasized that the perpetrators of genocide and gross violations of human rights have been far more effective in using radio broadcasting to pursue their lethal ends than the advocates of human rights. Since I wrote that piece, non-governmental initiatives in human rights-oriented radio broadcasting, often funded by North American and European government agencies, have become more common in Africa. The recent history of genocide suggests that these radio broadcasters have four key tasks: (1) to disseminate programs that encourage the bonds of solidarity and extend the universe of human obligation in societies threatened by gross violations of human rights; (2) to counter the lies and distortions of genocidal movements by delivering news and information that are as fair and objective as is humanly possible; (3) to make every effort to inform listeners about the dire economic and social consequences of genocide and the penalties which the international community is likely to impose on leaders who perpetrate mass murder; and (4) to warn the intended victims to flee when a genocide is imminent or just underway, while also encouraging the neighbors of the intended victims to give them refuge and assistance.

  • #82

    PROPHETE UMUHANUZI PROPAGANDA AND GENOCIDE 6 (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 02:14)

    FUNCTIONS OF THE MASS MEDIA IN INCITING GENOCIDE

    The mass media have three major functions in genocide: demonizing the intended victims; undermining support for the victims among members of the dominant group; and encouraging mass participation and acquiescence in the genocide. As Norman Cohn shows in Europe’s Inner Demons, ruling groups in the pre-modern era exploited three major accusations to demonize real or imagined groups that they intended to destroy: cannibalism; sexual license, including orgies and incest; and heresy. In the modern era, perpetrators have up-dated their stock of accusations to integrate themes drawn from nationalism and pseudo-scientific race theories. They allege that the very survival of the perpetrator’s group is at risk and that the victim group is conspiring to destroy it by recourse to treason, conspiracy with national rivals, and racial pollution through sexual intercourse.

    Modern communication theories emphasize that media audiences filter messages aimed at them through a complex network of individual and group identities and critical apparatuses. The media tells us not what to think, but how to think, proposing categories which influence how we organize and interpret the information we acquire. Ultimately, the media influence the agendas we set. But whether one subscribes to the social construction of reality perspective or media system dependency theory, many communications theorists are coming to recognize that five circumstances of particular interest to us facilitate maximum penetration of the audience and give extra potency to the media’s message:

    (1) the introduction of a new medium of communication, such as radio;
    (2) the use of a completely new style of communication;
    (3) the wide-spread perception that a crisis exists;
    (4) a public with little knowledge of the situation from other sources of information, and
    (5) a deep-seated habit of obeying authority among the target audience.

    All of these circumstances pertain to the promulgation of the genocide in Rwanda in 1994 and many of them are found in other cases of genocide and genocidal killings, as well.

    Radio has been one of the great forces for social and political mobilization in the twentieth century. The Bolsheviks were among the first to exploit its potential for overt indoctrination of the masses, but it was Joseph Goebbels who brought its use to perfection. Goebbels subsidized the production and distribution by German manufacturers of millions of cheap radios for German homes and ordered the installation of loudspeakers to broadcast Nazi radio news bulletins and speeches in factories and public places, where listeners were observed by so-called radio wardens. Goebbels’ first cheap receivers were deliberately designed to have a limited range,

  • #81

    PROPHETE UMUHANUZI PROPAGANDA AND GENOCIDE 5 (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 02:13)

    In the industrial world, Nazi Germany pioneered the use of newspapers and radio broadcasts to promote genocide. Although the actual mass murder of the Jewish people was never directly mentioned in official German government propaganda, Joseph Goebbels prepared the way by instructing German editors to abandon every last shred of "bourgeois sentimental attitudes" towards Jews and to impress on the public that the destruction of the Jews would not be a loss to mankind, but just as useful to society as capital punishment for criminals. It was left to a private individual, Julius Streicher, an old Nazi and one-time Gauleiter of Franconia, to issue public calls for the murder of the Jewish people in his weekly, Der St¸rmer. Streicher labeled Jews as germs and pests, not human beings, evil doers, as disseminators of diseases who must be destroyed in the interest of mankind. As the Judgement of the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg reminds us,

    it was not only in Germany that this defendant advocated his doctrines. As early as 1938 he began to call for the annihilation of the Jewish race . . . extermination "root and branch" was preached . . . Other articles urged that only when world Jewry had been annihilated would the Jewish problem have been solved . . . . (p.132)



    Der St¸rmer reached a circulation in 1935 of 600,000 copies.

    In Rwanda, newspapers rarely printed more than 3,000 copies of an issue and they circulated mainly in Kigali, where they sold for high prices that further limited their readership. With 400,000 to 500,000 AM/FM/shortwave radio receivers in homes and offices, and seven FM radio relay transmitters providing regular radio service to most of the country, Radio Rwanda and the privately-owned Radio RTLM were the major means of disseminating hate propaganda and provocative false news among the mass of Rwanda’s people. During the genocide of 1994, Rwanda’s radio network was also used to coordinate the movement of police, army, and militia units.

    In this short essay, I want to focus on the roles of the perpetrator’s mass media. I also want to outline some possible counter-measures.

  • #80

    PROPHETE UMUHANUZI PROPAGANDA AND GENOCIDE 4 (samedi, 05 novembre 2011 02:12)

    Rwanda’s prisons are filled several times over with the 130,000 persons accused of participating in the genocide, but these prisoners represent only the tip of the iceberg. The aberration of mass participation in a genocide, of Hutu men, women, and children killing their Tutsi neighbors and relatives, including the children born in mixed marriages, is best explained by three key factors: the Rwandan government’s successful propaganda campaign prior to the genocide accusing Tutsi of preparing a genocide against Hutu; the tradition of tight social control and obedience to central political authority whose roots lie deep in Rwanda’s pre-colonial and colonial history; and the element of greed in an overcrowded agrarian society. The ultimate responsibility for mass participation in the killing rests not with the naive and often illiterate farmers, but with the Akazu and its accomplices at the top of the Rwandan political pyramid, the leaders who gave the orders and controlled the chain of command that made their subjects kill their neighbors. There is no doubt today that—despite the valiant efforts of many Hutu to save the lives of their Tutsi neighbors—the government succeeded in making killers out of many Rwandans.

    INCITING GENOCIDE AGAINST THE ARMENIANS AND THE JEWS

    The extensive use of the media in Rwanda to prepare the soil for a genocide is unprecedented in a Third World country. The low literacy rate in Turkey at the time of the Armenian genocide precluded use of the press and magazines to reach more than a small number of intellectuals. The telegraph was used effectively to coordinate the genocide, but radio broadcasting was barely in its infancy in 1915. Instrumental to demonizing the Armenians was the use of more traditional instruments of shaping public opinion and raising the political temperature. Vahagan Dadrian, an historian of the Armenian genocide, cites the importance of the sermons of Muslim mullahs and the messages of the government and the Committee for Union and Progress spread by town criers, which were sprinkled with code words such as traitors, saboteurs, spies, conspirators, and infidels. Promoters of the massacre of the Armenians also disseminated falsely labeled photographs of rifles and other weapons to persuade Turks that their Armenian neighbors were storing up arms for use in plots to slaughter them.