dim.

02

oct.

2011

Paul Kagame ni we wahanuye indege ya Habyarimana, Kuva ubwo kugera n'ubu FPR ikora politiki yo kubeshya amahanga.Theogene Rudasingwa.

Nta bugabo bwo gusezerana n'undi mugabo uti dushyire intwaro hasi dushakishe amahoro, maze ukamuca inyuma ukamwica !

 

 

PAUL KAGAME NIWE WISHE PEREZIDA JUVENAL HABYARIMANA, PEREZIDA CYPRIEN NTARYAMIRA W’U BURUNDI, DEOGRATIAS NSABIMANA, ELIE SAGATWA, THADDEE BAGARAGAZA, JUVENAL RENZAHO, EMMANUEL AKINGENEYE, BERNARD CIZA, CYRIAQUE SIMBIZI, JACKY HERAUD, JEANPIERRE MINABERRY NA JEAN-MICHEL PERRINE.

 

Itariki 4 z’Ukwamunani, 1993, Arusha, Tanzania, Goverinoma y’u Rwanda n’Umulyango wa FPR-inkotanyi basinyanye Amasezerano y’ Amahoro y’ Arusha. Bimwe mu byo ayo masezerano yagombaga gushingiraho n’ubutegetsi bugendera ku mategeko, demokarasi, ubumwe bw’abanyarwanda, hamwe no kubahiriza uburenganzira bw’ikiremwa muntu. Muri ayo masezerano hari hakubiyemo nibijyanye no gusaranganya ubutegetsi, gushyiraho umutwe umwe w’Ingabo z’igihugu na Gendarmerie, hamwe no kurangiza burundu ikibazo cy’impunzi. Itariki 6 z’Ukwakane, 1994, saa 8:25 za nimugoroba, indege yo mu bwoko bwa Falcon 50 jet yaritwaye Perezida wa Repubulika w’u Rwanda, nomero “9XR-NN”, ivuye i DAR-ESSALAAM, Tanzania, aho abakuru bibihugu bo mu karere bari bateranye, igana i Kanombe ku kibuga cy’indege i KIGALI, Rwanda, yarashwe irahanuka. Abari mu ndege bose, harimo na Perezida Juvenal Habyarimana, Perezida Cyprien Ntaryamira w’ u Burundi, abari babaherekeje, na bari batwaye indege bose bayiguyemo.

 

Gupfa kwa Perezida Juvenal Habyarimana kwabaye imbarutso yo gutangira jenoside yibasiye abatutsi ndetse na abahutu batavugaga rumwe na leta yaririho icyo gihe. Imirwano yahise itangira hagati y’ingabo zigihugu niza FPR_Inkotanyi. Kuva icyo gihe, kugeza aya magingo, Kagame na FPR bakomeje gukwirakwiza ikinyoma bavuga ko igikorwa cyo guhanura indege cyakozwe na ba extremist babahutu ngo batashakaga gushyira mu bikorwa amasezerano y’Arusha, kandi ngo bashakaga gutangiza jenoside yaje guhitana abantu barenze 800,000 mu minsi ijana gusa. Hari benshi mu rubuga mpuzamahanga, inararibonye, n’imilyango iharanira uburenganzira bw’ikiremwa muntu bemeye kandi bacyemera icyo kinyoma. Ndi umwe mu bagize uruhare rwo gukwirakwiza icyo kinyoma, cyane cyane mu banyamahanga. Igihe kirageze kuvugisha ukuri. Paul Kagame, ariwe wari umugaba w’ingabo za FPR-Inkotanyi niwe watanze amabwiriza yo kurasa indege yaguyemo Perezida Habyarimana nabo barikumwe bose. Mu kwa karindwi, 1994, Paul Kagame ubwe yarabinyibwiriye ko “aritwe” twarashe iyo indege. Mu byukuri ibyo birazwi muri FPR no muri RPA ( Ingabo z’Igihugu) ko Kagame ari we wishe Habyarimana. Hari amwe mu mahanga azi ukwo kuri, nubwo aruma gihwa, akicecekera.

 

Ibihe byakurikiye isinywa ry’amasezerano y’ Arusha byari bitoroshye na gato, byasaga nibihatse akabi. Kwicwa kwa Perezida Habyarimana kwagize ingaruka zikomeye ku Rwanda nakarere k’Ibiyaga Bigari, kuko kwabaye imbarusto yo gutangira imirwano, genocide, nibindi bikorwa by’ubwicanyi. Na nubu turacyahanganye n’ingaruka zicyo gikorwa. Paul Kagame agomba gushyikirizwa ubucamanza mpuzamahanga bidatinze.

 

Icyambere, nta bugabo cyangwa ubutwari gusezerana nundi mugabo , uti dushyire intwaro hasi dushakishe amahoro, warangiza ukamuca inyuma ukamwica. Kagame na Habyarimana itariki 6 zukwa kane, 1994, ntibari ku rugamba rwamasasu. Iyo baza kuhahurira, umwe cyangwa bombi bakagwa ku rugamba byari kuba amakuba ariko byari kuba byunvikana kuko niko intambara imera. Perezida Habyarimana yaravuye Tanzania, aho we nabandi bakuru bibihugu bashakishakaga uburyo bwo gushyira mu bikorwa amasezerano.


Icya kabiri, Kagame ni umututsi kandi yarazi neza ingaruka zo kwica Perezida Habyarimana, umuhutu, ku bandi batutsi ndetse no mu bahutu batavugaga rumwe n’ubutegetsi bwariho. Nubwo ntavuga ko urupfu rwa Habyarimana arirwo rwateye jenoside, ariko ntawushidikanya ko rwatanze urwitwazo ku nkozi zibibi mu gukora ayo marorerwa.


Icya gatatu, mu kwica Perezida Habyarimana, Kagame yaragamije gusesa burundu amasezerano y’amahoro y’ Arusha, no kwubaka ingoma y’igitugu ishingiye kubwicanyi n’ibinyoma , kandi biragaragara mu Rwanda ko yabigezeho.


Icya kane, ubutabera mu Rwanda no mu rukiko mpuzamahanga bwarabogamye kuko bushingiye ku kinyoma, bityo bituma ubumwe nubwiyunge bigorana kugeraho. Nta ruhare na ruto nigeze ngira mu gucura no gushyira mu bikorwa umugambi mubisha wo kwica Perezida Habyarimana nabo bari kumwe.

 

Iyo nkuru nanjye nayunvise mwijoro kuri BBC nka saa saba, itariki 7 z’ukwa kane, 1994, aho nari ndi Kampala, Uganda, mu nama ya Pan African Movement. Ndahamya ko abenshi muri FPR , baba abasirikare cyangwa abasiviri, ari nkanjye nta ruhare bagize muruwo mugambi w’ ubwicanyi. Kagame niwe ubwe nyirabayazana, niwe ugomba kubazwa ibijyanye nicyo cyaha byose. Icyakora, nari umwe mu bayobozi bakuru mu mulyango wa FPR-Inkotanyi, kandi ndi umusirikare ufite ipeti rya Majoro mu gisirikare cya FPR. Niyo mpanvu ibyakozwe bibi kandi byitirirwa FPR nkiyirimo kandi nari mbereye umwe mu bayobozi nangye bindeba. Mpisemo kuvugisha ukuri mu gushakisha kubabarirana no gukira. Niyo mpanvu, mbikuye ku mutima, nsaba imbabazi imilyango ya Juvenal Habyarimana, Cyprien Ntaryamira, Deogratias Nsabimana, Elie Sagatwa, Thaddee Bagaragaza, Emmanuel Akingeneye, Bernard Ciza, Cyriaque Simbizi, Jacky Heraud, Jean-Pierre Minaberry, na Jean-Michel Perrine.

 

Mboneyeho no gusaba imbababazi abanyarwanda bose, kandi mbasaba ko twese twiyemeza kwanga ubwicanyi, ubugambanyi, nibinyoma nkintwaro muli politike, kurandura burundu umuco wo kudahana, no gukorera hamwe kwubaka umuco wo kworoherana, kubabarirana, ubumwe, ubwiyunge, gukira no kugendera ku mategeko.. Ndasaba imbabazi u Burundi bwiciwe abayobozi, nu Bufaransa bwiciwe abaturage bakoreraga u Rwanda. Byumwihariko ndasaba Imana ngo imbabalire ko navuze ibinyoma igihe kirekire cyane, ngahishira umwicanyi wateje imiborogo n’amarira mubo yiciye.

 

Nta gahato, mvuze ukuri imbere y’Imana na banyarwanda. Nka bandi banyarwanda mu Rwanda cyangwa hanze yarwo, kuvugisha ukuri bifite ingaruka. Paul Kagame afite ukuboko kudahaga kumena amaraso y’abanyarwanda. Izo ngaruka tuzazirengera mu nzira twahisemo yo guharanira inyungu zabanyarwanda bose. Kuvugisha ukuri ntabwo twakomeza kubisubika. Bikenewe uyu munsi. Ntabwo ibi mbikoze gushakisha ubutegetsi cyangwa ubundi bukungu. Mbikoze mu gukomeza gushakisha icya kiza urupfu nakarengane bimaze kuba akarande mu Rwanda rwacu. Ukuri nikwo kuzatuvana ku ngoyi. Umunsi twavuye ku ngoyi , tukagira ubwigenge busesuye, nibwo tuzababarirana nta gahato, hanyuma ubwo ibihe byo gukira bizaba bigeze.

 

 

Dr. Theogene Rudasingwa (sé)

 

Rudasingwa yahoze ari Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa FPR (1993-1996), Ambasaderi w’u Rwanda muri USA ( 1996-1999); n’Umunyamabanga Mukuru wi Biro bya Perezida Paul Kagame ( 2000-2004).

E-mail: ngombwa@gmail.com; Washington, DC. October 1, 2011

 

 

Commentaires : 143
  • #143

    vedaste (lundi, 28 novembre 2016)


    Ariko sha mberenambere wigaye ko uri injiji ihagarariye izindi. ubwose imyaka yose ishize nibwo ubonye ko abanyarwanda twagowe? nkubwo uriyahuza amagambo hari uwagutakiye? uriguta umwanya wubusa! shaka isuka uhinge.

  • #142

    Pasteur Gakozi Emmanuel (samedi, 03 janvier 2015 23:05)

    Mbanje gushimiri Imana kubatugihumeka tuva mubihugu vyi biyaga bigari.Mukuri ubutegeci buva ku Mana.Kandi iyo Mana nyene ikabwambura uwo ya buhaye.Tumenye neza ko iyisi iri kungoma ya satani.Tamahoro azaboneka.kugeza aho wa Mwami wa mahoro Yesu Krito azagarukira kwisi kuyihindura Paradizo.Maze agashinga Ingoma ye na bamwe 144.000.Nubwo USA yo kuraho ubuteci bwose bwo kwi si Ikaja kwisonga Amarira yagumaho.Akarorero ni hano ntuye SA Nyakwigendera MANDELA yasize akoze neza iki Gihugu.Ariko ubu amarira ni menshi.Marema umurego ara ukomeje.Mu komere mukwihangana.Uwampa gu twara Igihugu ntabwo na vyemera pe!! Numutwaro urusha nku MUSARABA.GAKOZI EMMANUEL.+27740197839.PRETORIA

  • #141

    mbarimombazo (dimanche, 13 janvier 2013 23:48)

    nimuge mwibwejagurirasha ibyo mwakoze birahagije amaraso abalinyuma nubwo mwajahe Mwese rero mwigize abapadili nababikira reka sinakubwira mwumva ntibihagije mwongeraho abuhanuzi! nimujye

  • #140

    Pastor John Mbitezimana (lundi, 26 novembre 2012 11:03)

    Mubyukuri u Rwanda kagame yararworetse.umuhutu,umututsi ndetse n'umutwa ntituzibagirwa icyo yakoze .reka dutegereze Imana icyo Izamukorera.akebo kajya i wa Mugarura.

  • #139

    gakozi Emmanuel (jeudi, 20 septembre 2012)

    twe dutuye Pretoria SA turakunda caaaane amakuru mudushikiriza kuko arayukuri ataho yegamiye imana Ibakomeze phone yanje ni 0710853434 murakoze

  • #138

    KANANURA CHARLES (vendredi, 07 octobre 2011 20:29)

    BIRABABAJE UMUNTU KWICA UNDI BARI BAMAZE GUSEZERANA AMAHORO.UBWO SI UBUGABO NI UBUCAKURA BURENZE URUGERO. iMANA IZABIMWISHYUZE.

    BANYARWANDA NAMWE MWAGIZE URUHARE RUKE MU KURWANYA FPR KERA. MURIBUKA UYU HABYARIMANA ATUBWIRA NGO "NIBA TUTARWANYE URU RUGAMBA NEZA NGO FPR ITSINDWE, KAGAME ARADUSUBIZA MU BUJA N'UBUCAKARA BWINDENGAKAMERE.SIBYO BYATUBAYEHO..!ICYO GIHE HARI MURI 92.ICYO GIHE KANDI YIYAMAGA CYANE ABANTU BAZANA AMACAKUBIRI HAGATI Y'ABAHUTU N'ABATUTSI KUKO NGO YARI NTWARO NKURU YA KAGAME PAUL.NONE MWANZE KUMWUMVIRA.INTWARO YAMACAKUBIRI TURAYIMIKA ARIYO YA KAGAME KUKO NIWE UFITE IVANGURA RIRENZE URUGERO:YASHAKIYE ABANTU IBYAHA BITABAHO NGO BE KUGIRA ICYO BAVUGA:HARIMO INGENGABITEKEREZO ...IGENDERE HABYARA NO WOWE NTWARI ABANDI NI ABICANYI ABAJURA N'ABAMBUZI

  • #137

    Respect (vendredi, 07 octobre 2011 18:23)


    Igendere President HABYARIMANA wakunze ukuri n'amahoro !uranabyitangira /wishe n'imisega itagirubwonko .Ndibuka cyane ukiriho Hutu-tutsi barasangiraga ,bagashyingirana ,bagasabana !izo ngegera zitarava uganda ngozoreke urwanda ,zirufate bugwate ,zirucurimivu y'amaraso ,zitatanye abanyarwanda ubutazasubirana .

    Uyumunsi wanone abakwishe n'abakugambaniye barakwifuza !Intwari igusumba nikabeho nyuma ya Victoire Ingabire ugera ikirenge mucyawe kuko icyo yifuza kandi aharanira ari kimwe "Table ronde ihuriweho n'abana b'urwanda bose ".

    Reposez à paix mon Général.

  • #136

    kababaro (jeudi, 06 octobre 2011 14:07)

    rudasi data kera yarambwiye ngo mwana wage uzapfe kigabo umva nkora muntoke hano afrika twabuze amahoro kuko maneko ze zatubujije amahoro ariko natwe tubarinyuma ariko muravuga ntimuvuge kibeho kuko mubarokokeye ikibeho ndimo ngo muvuge abatwikishijwe lisans nubutunguru ibutare babeshywa ko bacyuwe muma prefegitura andi mirambo itwikirwa nyungwe indi mirambo igahambwa mubyobo rusange munkabi hagati mubivuge kuko byarabaye

  • #135

    DERE UMUGABO (mercredi, 05 octobre 2011 18:42)

    Uyu niwe mu rideli rero ntakuryi iinwa rwose asabye imbabazi
    nguyu uwo urwanda rukeneye ngo atugeze kubumwe nubwiyungenyabwo. kugera naho yemera gupfa ariko agapfa ntacyaha apfanye.Narahunze ndabababara kubera intambara ariko njye kugiticyanjye ndakubabariye kumabiyangiriwe yose bitewe nintambara yashojwe na fpr ikaba gaheza ihitana umuyobozi washakaga amahoro yabanyarwanda. Ngahorero twese nitugushyigikire murugamba rwukuri kandi tuzatsinda!Erega nakagame asabye abanyarwanda imbabazi akicuza twazimuha aba pfuye bara pfuye ariko nukuri twubake urwatubyaye kibe cyagihugu cyamata nubuki
    Ndagusabir ngo ukomere kuko nzineza ko ubu inkora maraso ziguhigira hasi nihejuru ariko Uwiteka akurinde kuko uzarugeza aheza nitubigufashamo!

  • #134

    Kankindi Delfina (mercredi, 05 octobre 2011 14:31)

    Burya uwemera icyaha yakoze, nta gahato, arababara cyane. Iyo rero akomeje akacyicuza, akagisabira imbabazi, aba atsinze urugamba rukomeye. Kuko iyo umutimanama wawe ari wo ugucira urubanza, kabone n'aho watunga ibingana iki, kabone n'aho waba uri nde, cyangwa mwene nde..., ntushobora kugira amahoro.

    Rudasingwa rero, NDAGUSHIMYE.
    Iyaba n'abandi twamurikirwaga tukabona ububi bwacu, tugasaba imbabazi nka we, igihugu cyacu cyaba kirimo kuva mu ikorosi ry'icuraburindi tugana mu rumuri rwa demukarasi.

  • #133

    Nahimana Kayisire (mercredi, 05 octobre 2011 01:46)


    Imana izakora ukwishoboye abiyemera bakigira abere iberekane abarenganye bambikwe urugori.
    La juste n,est pas juste et le Droit n,est pas du tout droit. Qui ne sais pas que Paul K est bel bien le promoteur du génocide au Rwanda,mais un seul côté est jugé.

  • #132

    KANZIGA (mardi, 04 octobre 2011 23:44)

    Erega ubu buhamya bwa RUDASINGWA ntagishya kirimo, kuko ntawe utari uzi ko Kagame n'abo ba kayumba aribo bahanuye KINANI cyari cyarananiye abagome n'abagambanyi, kandi koko inkurikizi twese twarazibonye ! Kuna RUDASINGWA yaremeje ko Kagame ariwe wammwibwiriye ko yishe KINANI, nubwo bwose twese tuzi ko Kagame atari we wafoye umwambi, ibyo ntacyo bihinduye ku ibyo isi yose yari izi ! Kuko n'igihe Kagame yabimubwiriye, nta wundi bari kumwe ngo nawe azabyemeze, bityo bikaba ari icyo twakwita imanza zamahugu. Icyari gikenewe ni uko nka KAYUMBA wari mugaco kacuze uwo mug, wagiye ambimu inama zabiteguye nkuko abandi batanga buhamya bahoze muri FPR babyemeza, ndetse akaba anabiregerwa, iyo rero we aba yaratanze précisions ibyo wenda byari guha ubu buhamya bwa RUDASINGWA uburemere. Naho kuvuga ibi, ni ugusubiramo iby ba Bruguère banonosoye, ndetse byari byarana vumbuwe n'abahutu kuva kera igihe abo ba RUDASINGWA, GAHIMA,KAREGEYA, KAYUMBA, bose birirwaga bazenguruka isi yose bayemeza ibyo binyoma byabo ! Ariko burya ngo ikimwaro nticyica, nubwo bwose kuba bashaka kuva ikuzimu bajya ibuzima ntawe utabibashimira. Icyakora muri abo bose, nubwo bakoresha rudasingwa agatanga ubuhamya ngo bwamanuzu (sinzi aho nabisomye) ibib birarutanwa nimbe nawe, nubwo ibyo avuga byose abahutu bari bamaze imyaka n'imyaka babivuga. Kuba bivuzwe n'umututsi se bizongeraho iki ? None ba RUZIBIZA ntibari barabikoze rugikubita ? Keretse ari umuntu nka KAYUMBA utanze précisions kuri ayo mabi yose nawe yijanditsemo, ariko ndagira ngo nibwirire abamutezeho ako gakiza basubize amerwe mwisaho, kuko ubwo baugabo njye narangije kubona ko ntabwo agira, ko byose ari icyuka gusa gusa ! Mwishakire ubundi burya bariya mubareke, ubanza koko ari ibigarasha, wa mugani wa sebuja wabo !

  • #131

    Kamali (mardi, 04 octobre 2011 19:10)

    Rudasingwa Atanze ubuhamya Ngaho rero Banyarwanda nababwiliki nimwerekane namwe ko mwishoboye. Mwarasinziliye bihagije Imyaka 18 ntacyo ibabwiye? ngo mutegereje ko Kayumba agira ibyo avuga. Niki kirenze ubu buhamya mutegereje. Mbese ko ubundi Igicuma nako inguguru zilimo ubusa zahitaga zibeshyuza inkuru nkizi, Baruciye barumize. Ndabasaba ko mwahagurukira icyalimwe nka abitsamuye maze mukereka amahanga ko mwali mwaraphukiranwe maze umugome agashyikilizwa ubutabera. Hali ababaye abaministiri, bamasaderi n'abandi ni mukubite Dr ingabo mubitugu mukoreshe inshuti mwashatse ni mutarakoreraga inda zanyu maze umugome yerekwe ishyamba rya manyinya aho umwana alira nyina ntiyunve. Ba Mukurarinda bakwire imishwaro, bagaragure biliya bida byabo bimilije imbere mu kimwaro.
    Ngaho rero rungano turatabaye

  • #130

    Bazivamo (mardi, 04 octobre 2011 18:31)

    Yewe Rudasingwa, wibohoye ikiniga cyari cyarakunize mutima. Urakoze kuko ugize ubutwari bwo kutumenera ibanga Kagame yakomeje gupfukirana ahubwo agaha intebe ikinyoma yakoresheje kugeza ubu yoreka imbaga z'inzirakarengane z'abanyarwanda n'abanyekongo. Ibi rero ntibibe gusa umusogongero ahubwo bibe umusemburo wa révolution igamije gusubiza ukuri ku ntebe. Amaraso yamenywe no kwimika ikinyoma ni menshi. Ni ngombwa rero ko wowe Rudasingwa, wowe Kayumba Nyamwasa, wowe Gahima, wowe Karegeya, uwari we wese ugize icyo azi ku mabanga y'ubugome n'ubwicanyi bwa Kagame muhagurukira icyarimwe tugasaba ko uriya Ruharwa Rwicaruhoze ngo ni perezida w'u Rwanda ashyikirizwa ubucanza. Abagome n'abicanyi bose aho bava bakagera bagomba kwisobanura imbere y'inkiko ku mahano bakoze bagahanwa, abarenganwa nka ba Ingabire, Mushayidi, Ntaganda,n'abandi bose bazira guharanira ukuri, amahoro na demokarasi bakarenganurwa. Ibyo ni byo bizatuma haba ubumwe n'ubwiyunge nyabwo, bityo abanyarwanda tukongera kubana mu bwisanzure no mu busabane. Muri rero urufunguzo rw'urwo Rwanda rukeye ruzira amacakubiri n'uburyamirane kuko mufite ubuhamya bukomeye bwadukiza iriya ngoyi ya satani iziritse urwatubyaye ikaba ituganisha mu icuraburindi. Nimubishyireho umwete kuko umwanzi Kagame aryamiye amajanja, nimutamutanga azabatanga; we ntakina kandi murabizi.

  • #129

    bigwabishinze (mardi, 04 octobre 2011 18:30)

    Rudasingwa ibyo uvuga ni byo kandi ubuhamya nkubu ningira/kamaro cyane cyane mubihe nkibi. mbese utanze abandi umushi. ariko nanone kuki uvuga ngo ilyo pangwa lyiraswa ntiwariurizi?kandi wari mubuyobozi bwo mu bushorishori?gusa wenda iyi ni titre waduhaga ugiye kuduha inkuru nyayo muri iyi minsi. ariko rero ukuri watangiye kukuvugisha komera kandi ntugasitare.

  • #128

    SAKINA (mardi, 04 octobre 2011 12:47)

    # 126

    Yewe, KAYUMBA nimumureke, navuge ngo ntihazagire nuwongera kumusaba ibi cyangwa ibi, ngo natange ubuhamya, agomba ahari yibonamo idolari rikenewe cyane. Ntazagire icyo avuga, twese tuzabyirangiriza, siwe kamara narekera aho kwitera ijeki ! Atinya ko yavuga ukuri nawe akirega, agahitamo kurya iminwa, ngo sinavuga kandi mfite imanza zintegereje. Nonese ye, abo bose (igroupe yabo) barinda gutuma Rudasingwa ngo nabatangire ubuhamya bw'amanusu, kandi bo bazi neza uko byagenze kuko babigizemo uruhare, bibwira ko iyo myifatire yabo tutayibona ? Barushwa ubugabo na RUZIBIZA ! Umugabo ni uwemera kigabo ibyiza n'ibibi yakoze, mu gifransa babyita "ASSUMER", umugabo udashobora kuvugisha ukuri (nubwo aba batigeze babitozwa muri kamere n'uburere bwabo)nta mugabo umurimo, nta nicyo yashobora kugeza ku abandi mureke rero KAGAME azamunyzemo isasu amuhamye, kuko nubundi ntacyo abakeneye ukuri kurenganura bari bashobora kumutegaho ! Bazapfe urwo bagapfuye, bagwe ishyanga kandi ngo barabohoje igihugu da, ngo bakanacyura impunzi zabo zari zarahejejwe hanze n'abahutu ! Mbega ubwenge buke ! Komera cyane KAYUMBA we, ejo Kagame azagusanga mu mwobo nka Saddam hussein, kuko uwo ZUMA mwishingikirije ntazahora ategeka Afrique du Sud ! Yewe iby'abatutsi ni ibitwenge gusa gusa ! Mbasabye gusa kutazongera kwitwara nkaho ahendahenda KAYUMBA cyangwa KAREGEYA ngo bavuge ibi n'ibi, abanyabugabo buke badashobora kwassuma ibyo bakoze ! Barebeye kuri ziriya ntwari ziri ARUSHA ! Burya abantu baratandukanye koko !!!!

  • #127

    RUDASINGWA WE (mardi, 04 octobre 2011 10:03)

    Sha ntibagushyiramo AMASASU nka cya KIGARASHA cyo muri S.A? sha bazagutuma Igitega KIRARE KIKUVANYEHO TU!

    IMANA IKURINDE.

  • #126

    FAUSTIN KAYUMBA NYAMWASA (mardi, 04 octobre 2011 10:00)

    Njyewe nzajya nemera Ibyo KAYUMBA avuze. Nubwo ari IKIGARASHA ariko wumva avuga Ikintu Kivuye k'Umutima.

    KAYUMBA , RUDASINGWA ntiyarakwiye Kugutanga Gutanga UBUHAMYA Bw'IBYO UZI NEZA. DUKURE MURUNGABANGABO TWUMVE.KUGUMYA TUKURIRIRAAA, KANDI UDUHISHE UKULI OYA TUZA KUKRAMBIRWA....

    KANDI NUSABA IMBABBAZI, UKAJOMBA IKIRENJYE MUCYUYU MUHUNGU, Yewe POLO ntaho azaba asigaye ndakurahiye. GUSA UZABISOHORE MUCYONGEREZA WOWE NO MURUFRANSA.

    RUDSIBGWA: NDIZERA KO UMUTIMA WAWE URUHUTSE, uzi KUBESHYAAAA...Karugarama ati: URABESHYA UKAZIBESHYA.

    IMANA IKUGIRIRE NEZA KANDI IREBE AHO UKUYE.

  • #125

    Burundiano (mardi, 04 octobre 2011 01:53)

    Hahahahahahh iyi photo irasekeje cyane kandi aka kagabo nagasega karashisha mwa! Reba ibyinyo bye bisa na jaune,udutwi hahahahah n'utu lunettte nabonye kandi umuzungu yarafise iyi carrucature yaka kagabo muri manifestation i paris narasetse mpakwa kuma avuga ngo voila l'homme mince,du jamais vu hahahah udutwi wagira ngo nimbeba!!Yooo reba sha kirya gisore cyigisirikare kiberewe nubu president(Habyara)

  • #124

    KANGA (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 23:28)

    ARIKO CYA KINANI CYARI IKIGABO CYIZA CY'IGIKWERERE WEEEE ! MURABONA KOKO UKUNTU HANO KIBEREWE CYANE? CYICAYE GITUJE KIGANJE NEZA RWOSE ? AHA KANDI CYARI GIFITE IMYAKA INGANA NIYIRIYA NJATI, URIYA MUSEGA NGO NI KAGAME ! NJYE NDAGIRA NGO MBAZE INKOTANYI YOSE IZASOMA IYI COMMENT YOSE? MUJYA KWITORAMO AKA GAKOKO KU ISURA NO MUMICO NGO KAKAYOBORE, MWARI MWISHATSEMO UNDI MUNGABO UGARAGARA ARI KU ISURA, MUGIHAGARARO, UFITE UBURERE BITUMA ADASA NGO ANITWARE NKAGAHIRIMBIRI(URETSE KO KURIYI NGINGO IMYITWARIRE YANYU YEREKANYE KO HAFI YA MWESE MURI BAMWE),MBESE UTARI MURYABANTU UKUNDA AMAZIRANTOKI ? YEWE RWANDA WAGORWA, WAGORWA !

  • #123

    SASA (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 21:15)

    Indege yahanuwe mu kwa kane maze wowe umenya ukuli mu kwa kalidwi ! aruko nabwo ubibwiwe. Ni gute umuntu nka Rudasingwa warukomeyemuli FPR kaliya kageni icyemezo cyafatwa atabizi ?

    Ndabona aya ali amatakira ngoyi ; aba bagabo batangiye gusonza no gukumbura bwa buzima balimo bakili kubutegetsi
    Usibye utazi gushishoza wakwemera ibi avuze, naho ubundi
    ntakuli na kumwe kulimo. Ntago ibyo uvuga wabibonye, ntago
    wabibwiwe n'indi utali KAGAME waga urunuka. Ntacyo mutazakora rero kugira ngo mumusebye no ku mwandagaza. Jye
    nta agaciro naha aya magambo.

  • #122

    Peaceman (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 20:03)


    Intwari Victoire Ingabire ,yarahagurutse ati :Ngiye kumara Abanyarwanda bose (Abatwa ,Abahutu n'Abatutsi )Ubwoba no kubashishikariza kuba intwari bakavugisha ukuri !Agikandagiza ibirenge bye k'ubutaka bw'urwanda yayise abiba imbuto zo kuvugisha ukuri ,none zirimogutanga umusaruro utagiringano !!!!Mwishyuhaguzwa cyane biracyaza !!!!

    Twese hamwe tuzatsinda .

  • #121

    HAKUNASHIDA (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 19:54)

    BYUKUSENGE #34.rwose proposition utanga ndayihyigigikiye.
    ndetse hano mu rwanda ndi pret yo gufasha imiryango yabo bantu nkuko ubidusaba.
    nange rero nasaba abegeye uriya haduyi guhita bakora akazi kabo.

  • #120

    #120 (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 17:45)

    Abanyarwanda (Abatutsi, Abahutu ndetse n'Abatwa) twakanzwe ni inkota,Umupanga, Ubuhiri, Agafuni, Amasasu, nizindi pfu zitandukanye zakuriye iyicwa rya HABYARIMANA. Interahamwe ndetse n'inkotanyi zimwe na zimwe bafite byinshi bazabazwa. Abarundi bafite uburenganzira byo kubaza u Rda uwishe President wabo, bigasobanuka binyuze mu butabera. njye mbona igihe kizagera abana bacu bakazishyura ibyo batagize mo uruhare kuko icyaha ntigisaza.
    Twese, nidusabe ko ubutabera bugaragaza ukuri, uwagize uruhare wese mukwica inzirakarengane yabigambiriye ahanwe. nibwo tuzaraga abana bacu igihugu kiza, kizira ibibazo n'intambara.
    Intwari u Rda rukeneye ni izakiza Abanyarwanda bose, ikabahuza bakabana nta rwikekwe.
    Buri mu Nyarwanda aho arihose nagire ukukundo arwanye ikibi cyakwibasira mugenziwe, arebe umuntu yekureba ubwoko (nubwo butari mu irangamuntu buri mu mitima ndetse no mumahuriro amwe n'amwe) kandi yumve abandi aho kwivuza ko ariwe wenyine wakwitabwaho.
    Dusenge cyane Imana izadukomeza kandi idukize ikibi cyose.

  • #119

    KAJEGUHAKWA (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 17:07)

    Muraga puuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu murareba ukuntu mutuka HE?

  • #118

    Mwihangane (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 15:51)

    Habyarimana yari umubyeyu wa mahoro none kagame yaramudutwaye , araruhiru busa , we na bana be bazishyura aka kababaro bateye aba aba Nyarwanda kugeza nanubu

  • #117

    KARANGWA (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 15:11)

    AFRICA IRAREMEREWE,ABAYOBOZI DUFITE NTABWO BAZIGERA BIGENGA KUBERA KUDASHYIRA HAMWE NGO BAGIRE IJWI RIMWE AHUBWO USANGA BARYANA GUSA.KAGAME NAWE YAFASHE IGIHUGU YIGIRA INKOTANYI CYANE NGO YAHAGARITSE GENOCIDE AHUBWO ARI WE MBARUTSO YAYO,IBIHUGU BY'IBIHAGANGE BITI SENYA URWAWE TUGUTIZE UMUHORO BIMWOHEREZA CONGO ARABIHAHIRA ARIKO AMAZE KUBONA AGAFARANGA ATANGIRA KWIHENURA KU BAMUFASHIJE.MU GIHE K'IHIRIMA RYE MUZABONA IBIMENYETSO BIKURIKIRA:-GUKANDAMIZA IBITANGAZAMAKURU.-GUSHWANA N'IBYEGERA BYE.-GUSUMBANYISHA IGISIRIKARE.-KWIKANGA BARINGA YUMVA AMABWIRE.-KWIHENURA KU BIHUGU BYAMWIMITSE N'IBIMUSHYIGIKIYE. -KUGUNDIRA UBUTEGETSI KUBERA KUBURA AHO YATARABUKIRA KUBERA AMARASO Y'INZIRAKARENGANE AMURIHO NA MANDAT ZIMUTEGEREJE.-KUTUMVA NA GATO ABATAVUGA RUMWE NAWE.IBI NI IBIGARAGAZA AMAHORO ATARAMBYE NA GATO NIYO HABAHO ITERAMBERE RIMEZE GUTE NI NKO KUBAKA INZU ITAGIRA UMUSINGI.

  • #116

    # 83 (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 14:58)

    Ndumva nta Muhutu ubu wahakana ko jenoside yabaye. Yarabaye irongera iraba.Ikibazo abahutu bari bafite kandi kibavuna ni ukumenya iwatumye iba.None Dieu merci,Dr Rudasingwa aramutubwiye. Ejo na Kayumba azatubwira ibyo azi ndetse na Rukokoma asabwe kwerura.

  • #115

    Majoro Mugabo (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 14:24)

    Rudasingwa agize neza, nibura ni umwe utinyutse gusaba imbabazi imiryango yabaye imbarutso ya génocide n'abanyarwanda by'umwihariko.
    Ariko nongere ku nyandiko ye ko nta gishya gisohotse, za raporo za LONI, raporo z'ibihugu binyuranye harimo Abafaransa n'Abasipanyoli,...ku mugaragaro zaratohoje zisanga Kagame ariwe mbarutso ya Génocide! Abakomeza kubihakana kandi na Kagame ubwe atarigeze abasha kubihakana, ahubwo iyo arakaye abyigamba ku mugaragaro, aba ntibategura ejo hazaza h'abanyarwanda ahubwo bubakira ku kirunga kizaruka isaha igeze! Kwitandukanya na Kagame bisaba ubutwari kandi ni ibintu byihutirwa, abakomeza kumusingiza ntibabone aho ashaka kutujyana ko ari habi cyane, barubakira ku mucanga kandi ntibashakira abanyarwanda ejo hazaza heza!
    Amateka azagaragaza ibigwari, abakunda amafranga abo aribo,..abakomeza gukata imanza mu Rwanda na za Arusha birengagije ko ubutabera igihe cyose bugomba gushingira ku kuri, budashingira kuri Politiki n'ibinyoma by'abafite ingufu none ariko ejo bazasigara ari ibigarasha! Butuyu iyo atari iturufu ntirya na rimwe! Keretse igihe iba ihawe umwanya w'ibanze....abasesengura bashaka amerekezo y'u Rwanda babitekerezeho!
    Naho Rudasingwa yikwibasirwa, nibura abohoye umutima we, naho kumenya neza iby'indege, birazwi nta n'abagabo bakenewe, ariko mu nyandiko ye, n'aka ni agatonyanga mu nyanja,...Ushidikanya iyicwa rya Habyara we, turi gutegura kwerekana ukuri kwambaye ubusa, turacyitonze kuko Kagame byatuma inkota ye ikomeza guhitana benshi dore ko ibyo dufite hari nabo basangirira ku mbehe uyu munsi yahita yerekeza iyo munsi y'ubutaka!

  • #114

    GENOCID IDIOLOGY! (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 06:00)

    Ninde wababeshye ko ingengabitekerezo ipimwa?! Mwadutwaye mu rujijo imyaka 17 ishize irahagije.

  • #113

    MUGABOSHAKA (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 05:35)

    kwima amatwi ibyandikwa ku rubuga ’leprophète’Nk’ahagana ku wa 19 Gashyantare uyu mwaka, Padiri Nahimana uba mu gihugu cy’Ubufaransa yatangarije Radiyo BBC Gahuzamiryango aya magambo:
    “Ikintu cy’ingenzi nabonye rumaze gushyira ahagaragara ni uko abantu bamenye ko bashobora gushyira ahagaragara icyo batekereza…, ariko icyo twashimye kuruta ibindi ni ibyerekeye umuminisitiri wari ushinzwe siporo n’umuco, bavuze ngo uyu muminisitiri nyamara yitwara nabi, turabigaragaza kuko twabonaga ari uburyo bwo kugaragaza uko kuri nyine ; niba umuntu afite ibindi yiberamo adakora akazi ke mu gihe abandi bari gupfa, bari kurara hanze,… we ari kwikorera ibyo mwabonye mu mafoto, ibyo ngibyo abanyarwanda bagomba kubimenya noneho kuva ubungubu.”
    Musenyeri Bimenyimana yemeza ko nta musaseridoti n’uwiyeguriye Imana wemerewe kuba umunyapolitiki atabiherewe uburenganzira n’umwepiskopi. N’ubwo Musenyeri Bimenyimana adasobanura neza niba aha ashaka kuvuga ko Padiri Nahimana na Padiri Rudakemwa bishoye mu bikorwa bya politiki batabanje kubyakira uburenganzira, abo bapadiri bo bavuga ko urubuga rwabo ntaho ruhuriye na politiki.
    “Abapadiri ntibemerewe gukora politiki iyi yo kujya mu buyobozi ; ariko abapadiri ni Abanyarwanda nk’abandi : babona uko igihugu kiyobowe, babona aho abantu barengana, babona ibyiza, ibitagenda, aho abantu bari kurengana, ahubwo iyo ni inshingano y’abapadiri ahubwo,” ni ko Nahimana yabwiye BBC n’ubundi.
    Uwo mupadiri yakomeje avuga ko gushinga urwo rubuga ntaho bihuriye n’ubutumwa bwa gipadiri bafite, ko ahubwo barushinze bagendeye ku burenganzira bahabwa n’amategeko yo kugaragaza icyo umuntu atekereza.
    Abo bapadiri bavuga ko bagamije kugaragaza ukuri ku bibera mu Rwanda, cyane cyane ngo bahereye ku mateka yarwo bavuga ko atacyigishwa mu gihe ngo urubyiruko rukeneye kuyamenya.
    Nyamara kuri iyi ngingo y’amateka, guverinoma y’u Rwanda ihamya ko amateka yigishijwe nabi aho ivuga ko ari amateka yari yuzuyemo ubutumwa bucamo ibice Abanyarwanda cyane cyane guhera muri za 33 kugeza mu w’1994. Ubu Leta ikaba ikomeje gukora ubushakashatsi ku mateka mu rwego rwo gusobanurira Abanyarwanda amateka nyayo. Nko mu mpera z’umwaka ushize, Komisiyo y’Ubumwe n’Ubwiyunge mu Rwanda yatangazaga ko hari ubushakashatsi bwimbitse bwakorwaga bugamije kwerekana amateka nyayo. U Rwanda rutangaza ko amateka yigishwa Abanyarwanda n’abanyeshuri by’umwihariko ari amateka abahamagarira kunga ubumwe buzira amacakubiri mu rwego rwo kongera kubaka igihugu cyashegeshwe na jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu w’1994

  • #112

    GENOCIDE IDEOLOGY BY PROPHETE WEB SITE ALERT/NEW RTLM KILLING PEOPLE BY MEDIA 2 (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 05:34)

    )
    RTLM was not alone on the Rwandan hate media scene. In fact, it was in the print media where hate speech against Tutsis first gained prominence and "became so systemic as to seem the norm." [19] The state-owned newspaper Kangura (meaning "Wake Up" in Kinyarwanda) was the original organ of hate media, as it began demonizing Tutsis and the RPF in October 1990. [20] Its effectiveness can largely be attributed to its reliability, an indication of its proximity to those in power; Article 19 observed that "whatever Kangura called for usually occurred, when it related to specific individuals, and this added to the fear which the newspaper inspired." [21] Kangura was followed by similar publications with links to President' Habyarimana's regime and powerful Hutu individuals. Kangura's methods were similar to those of RTLM and many of the themes popularized by RTLM actually originated from the pages of Kangura. In the ongoing International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, the individuals behind Kangura have been accused of producing leaflets in 1992 picturing a machete and asking "What shall we do to complete the social revolution of 1959?" [22] (A reference to the politically orchestrated communal violence in 1959 that resulted in thousands of mostly Tutsi casualties and forced roughly 300,000 Tutsis to flee to neighboring Burundi and Uganda. [23] ) Kangura also published the infamous "10 Hutu Commandments," which called upon Hutus to massacre Tutsis, [24] and the paper generally went to great lengths to create the impression that the RPF had a devious grand strategy, at one point featuring an article titled "Tutsi colonization plan." [25]

    Radio Rwanda, the official government station, was also complicit in promoting violence. The strategy used was similar to that employed by RTLM and Kangura; for example, in March 1992 the station "warned that Hutu leaders were going to be murdered by Tutsi, false information meant to spur the Hutu massacre of Tutsi." [26] Such reports, in which "Radio Rwanda provided patently false and inflammatory reports on the RPF and the extent of their hostilities," were frequent; one report in 1992 falsely claimed that then RPF President and current Rwandan President Paul Kagame had been killed by a mine. [27] Later that year the station started broadcasting communiqué's from a fictitious organization warning of impending widespread conflict. [28] In 1993, the station featured an interview with a woman who told a fabricated story about how RPF troops beat her with a hammer and threw her into a mass grave. When she managed to climb out of the grave, she said, she saw the soldiers remove a fetus from a pregnant woman and then force the woman to prepare a meal. [29] Clearly, this story was intended to dehumanize RPF soldiers, most of who are Tutsis, and justify their slaughter.
    There were attempts by opposition parties to reform Radio Rwanda in 1992 and 1993, and because they were partially successful disgruntled Hutus founded RTLM. But once the genocide began Radio Rwanda was "pulled into the orbit of RTLM" as they "collaborated to deliver a single message about the need to extirpate the 'enemy.'" [30]

    RTLM left the airwaves when the genocide ended in July 1994, but its influence persisted. Some of RTLM's equipment may have been handed over to Radio Rutomorangingo (also known, inappropriately, as Radio Democracy), a pirate station based in Zaire broadcasting into Burundi [31], a country with demographics similar to those of Rwanda and a history of ethnic conflict between Hutus and Tutsis. In August of 1994 Radio Rutomorangingo began broadcasting hate propaganda directed against Burundian Tutsis that smacked of tactics eerily similar to those used by RTLM (although it has been argued that "the same could be said of the broadcasts from the [Burundi] government-controlled station." [32]) However, this time around the international community's response was considerably swifter. The Burundian government called for the station to be shut down, as did the UN Security Council, a UN sub-committee and the NGO Reporters sans Frontiers. [33] In 1995 US officials decided that they could legally play a role in silencing the station, [34] but before they could the tone of the stations' broadcasts became less virulent. Nonetheless, in 1996, the Burundian government decided to jam the station's signal, "apparently using equipment from the Israeli government." [35] This made the signal difficult to pick up in the capital, but it remained accessible in more remote areas.

  • #111

    NEW RTLM),NEW GENOCIDE IDEOLOGY KILLING PEOPLE BY MEDIA PROPHETE (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 05:32)

    Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines

    Description from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

    Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines (RTLM) was a Rwandan radio station which broadcast from July 8, 1993 to July 31, 1994. It played a significant role during the April-July 1994 Rwandan Genocide.

    The station's name is French for "Mille Collines Free Radio and Television", deriving from the description of Rwanda as "Land of a Thousand Hills". It received support from the government-controlled Radio Rwanda, which initially allowed it to transmit using their equipment.

    Widely listened to by the general population, it projected racist propaganda against Tutsis, moderate Hutus, Belgians, and the United Nations mission UNAMIR. It is widely regarded as having played a crucial role in creating the atmosphere of charged racial hostility that allowed the genocide to occur. A November 2009 study—by a PhD candidate at the Institute for International Economic Studies of Stockholm University—estimated that the broadcasts explained an increase in violence that amounted to 45,000 Tutsi deaths, about 9% of the total.

    Read Transcripts
    Transcripts from the UN International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda archives
    UNICTR RTLM Tape 1, recording from 14 May 1994 [Kinyarwanda]
    1994 May 14 (UNICTR RTLM Tape 1) [Kinyarwanda]
    Kinyarwanda transcript of UNICTR RTLM Tape 1, recording from 14 May 1994
    Kinyarwanda transcript of UNICTR RTLM Tape 2, recording from 16-17 May 1994 [English translation]
    Kinyarwanda transcript of UNICTR RTLM Tape 3, recording from 14-15 May 1994 [French translation]
    Kinyarwanda transcript of UNICTR RTLM Tape 4, recording from 12 April 1994 [English translation] [French translation]
    Kinyarwanda transcript of UNICTR RTLM Tape 5, recording from 15 May 1994
    Kinyarwanda transcript of UNICTR RTLM Tape 6, recording from 15 May 1994
    Kinyarwanda transcript of UNICTR RTLM Tape 7, recording from 15-16 May 1994 [French translation]
    Kinyarwanda transcript of UNICTR RTLM Tape 8, recording from 17 May 1994 [English translation]
    Kinyarwanda transcript of UNICTR RTLM Tape 9, recording from 17-18 May 1994 [English translation] [French translation]
    Kinyarwanda transcript of UNICTR RTLM Tape 10, recording from 21 May 1994 [French translation]
    Kinyarwanda transcript of UNICTR RTLM Tape 11, recording from 28 May 1994 [English translation] [French translation]
    Kinyarwanda transcript of UNICTR RTLM Tape 12, recording from 28 May 1994 [English translation]
    UNICTR RTLM Tape 101, recording from 12 December 1993 [Kinyarwanda] [French]

  • #110

    Iritangazamakuru rya prophete ,mu mugambi wo kwica (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 05:30)

    gi wa Kigali!...- Zimwe mu ngero z'umutekano muke abaturage bafite.... Interahamwe zimaze kuba ingabo nyakuri zitagira amategeko!...- Ubutabera ku ruhare r ... ... li...- Quelques exemples de 'insécurité que connait la population!...- Interahamwe est devenu une véritable armée hors la loi!...- La justice sur les resp ... Oral Testimony of RUTAYISIRE Masengo Gilbert
    Sequence 1 of 1.
    The oral testimony of RUTAYISIRE Masengo Gilbert, a survivor of the Genocide Against the Tutsi, recorded by the Kigali Genocide Memorial in Kigali, Rwanda. The testimony is given in Kinyarwanda, with English translation and subtitles available.

    Oral Testimony of MUPENZI Odette
    Sequence 1 of 3.
    The oral testimony of MUPENZI Odette, a survivor of the Genocide Against the Tutsi, recorded by the Kigali Genocide Memorial in Kigali, Rwanda. The testimony discusses on her misfortune during the Genocide, particularly the bodily injuries, the struggle for surviving Genocide and the life of treatment after the Genocide. The testimony is given in Kinyarwanda, with translations available in English and French.
    Oral Testimony of MUPENZI Odette
    Sequence 2 of 3.
    The oral testimony of MUPENZI Odette, a survivor of the Genocide Against the Tutsi, recorded by the Kigali Genocide Memorial in Kigali, Rwanda. The testimony discusses on her misfortune during the Genocide, particularly the bodily injuries, the struggle for surviving Genocide and the life of treatment after the Genocide. The testimony is given in Kinyarwanda, with translations available in English and French.

    Oral Testimony of NSHIMIYIMANA Claude
    Sequence 1 of 2.
    The oral testimony of NSHIMIYIMANA Claude, a survivor of the Genocide Against the Tutsi, recorded by the Kigali Genocide Memorial in Kigali, Rwanda. The testimony discusses early memories of childhood and family, the worst atrocities during the genocide, suffering and witnessing human rights abuses, surviving the genocide, and life after the genocide. The testimony is given in Kinyarwanda.
    Oral Testimony of NSHIMIYIMANA Claude
    Sequence 2 of 2.
    The oral testimony of NSHIMIYIMANA Claude, a survivor of the Genocide Against the Tutsi, recorded by the Kigali Genocide Memorial in Kigali, Rwanda. The testimony is given in Kinyarwanda, with English transcript and subtitles available.

  • #109

    Media propaganda new genocide ideology by prophete (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 05:29)

    Media propaganda According to recent commentators, the news media played a crucial role in the genocide; local print and radio media fueled the killings while the international media either ignored or seriously misconstrued events on the ground.[19] The print media in Rwanda is believed to have started hate speech against Tutsis, which was later continued by radio stations. According to commentators, anti-Tutsi hate speech "...became so systemic as to seem the norm." The state-owned newspaper Kangura had a central role, starting an anti-Tutsi and anti-RPF campaign in October 1990. In the ongoing International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, the individuals behind Kangura have been accused of producing leaflets in 1992 picturing a machete and asking "What shall we do to complete the social revolution of 1959?" – a reference to the Hutu revolt that overthrew the Tutsi monarchy and the subsequent politically orchestrated communal violence that resulted in thousands of mostly Tutsi casualties and forced roughly 300,000 Tutsis to flee to neighboring Burundi and Uganda. Kangura also published the infamous "10 Hutu Commandments," which regulated all dealings with Tutsis and how Hutus were to treat them. It communicated the message that the RPF had a devious grand strategy against the Hutu (one feature article was titled "Tutsi colonization plan").[20]

    Due to high rates of illiteracy at the time of the genocide, radio was an important way for the government to deliver messages to the public. Two radio stations key to inciting violence before and during the genocide were Radio Rwanda and Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines (RTLM). In March 1992, Radio Rwanda was first used in directly promoting the killing of Tutsi in Bugesera, south of the national capital Kigali. Radio Rwanda repeatedly broadcast a communiqué warning that Hutu in Bugesera would be attacked by Tutsi, a message used by local officials to convince Hutu that they needed to attack first. Led by soldiers, Hutu civilians and the Interahamwe attacked and killed hundreds of Tutsi.[21]

    At the end of 1993, the RTLM's highly sensationalized reporting on the assassination of the Burundian president, a Hutu, was used to underline supposed Tutsi brutality. The RTLM falsely reported that the president had been tortured, including castration (in pre-colonial times, some Tutsi kings castrated defeated enemy rulers). There were 50,000 civilian deaths in Burundi in 1993.

  • #108

    ABAKIRISITU TURAMAGANA (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 05:26)

    arahamagarira kwima amatwi ibyandikwa ku rubuga ’leprophète’Nk’ahagana ku wa 19 Gashyantare uyu mwaka, Padiri Nahimana uba mu gihugu cy’Ubufaransa yatangarije Radiyo BBC Gahuzamiryango aya magambo:
    “Ikintu cy’ingenzi nabonye rumaze gushyira ahagaragara ni uko abantu bamenye ko bashobora gushyira ahagaragara icyo batekereza…, ariko icyo twashimye kuruta ibindi ni ibyerekeye umuminisitiri wari ushinzwe siporo n’umuco, bavuze ngo uyu muminisitiri nyamara yitwara nabi, turabigaragaza kuko twabonaga ari uburyo bwo kugaragaza uko kuri nyine ; niba umuntu afite ibindi yiberamo adakora akazi ke mu gihe abandi bari gupfa, bari kurara hanze,… we ari kwikorera ibyo mwabonye mu mafoto, ibyo ngibyo abanyarwanda bagomba kubimenya noneho kuva ubungubu.”
    Musenyeri Bimenyimana yemeza ko nta musaseridoti n’uwiyeguriye Imana wemerewe kuba umunyapolitiki atabiherewe uburenganzira n’umwepiskopi. N’ubwo Musenyeri Bimenyimana adasobanura neza niba aha ashaka kuvuga ko Padiri Nahimana na Padiri Rudakemwa bishoye mu bikorwa bya politiki batabanje kubyakira uburenganzira, abo bapadiri bo bavuga ko urubuga rwabo ntaho ruhuriye na politiki.
    “Abapadiri ntibemerewe gukora politiki iyi yo kujya mu buyobozi ; ariko abapadiri ni Abanyarwanda nk’abandi : babona uko igihugu kiyobowe, babona aho abantu barengana, babona ibyiza, ibitagenda, aho abantu bari kurengana, ahubwo iyo ni inshingano y’abapadiri ahubwo,” ni ko Nahimana yabwiye BBC n’ubundi.
    Uwo mupadiri yakomeje avuga ko gushinga urwo rubuga ntaho bihuriye n’ubutumwa bwa gipadiri bafite, ko ahubwo barushinze bagendeye ku burenganzira bahabwa n’amategeko yo kugaragaza icyo umuntu atekereza.
    Abo bapadiri bavuga ko bagamije kugaragaza ukuri ku bibera mu Rwanda, cyane cyane ngo bahereye ku mateka yarwo bavuga ko atacyigishwa mu gihe ngo urubyiruko rukeneye kuyamenya.
    Nyamara kuri iyi ngingo y’amateka, guverinoma y’u Rwanda ihamya ko amateka yigishijwe nabi aho ivuga ko ari amateka yari yuzuyemo ubutumwa bucamo ibice Abanyarwanda cyane cyane guhera muri za 33 kugeza mu w’1994. Ubu Leta ikaba ikomeje gukora ubushakashatsi ku mateka mu rwego rwo gusobanurira Abanyarwanda amateka nyayo. Nko mu mpera z’umwaka ushize, Komisiyo y’Ubumwe n’Ubwiyunge mu Rwanda yatangazaga ko hari ubushakashatsi bwimbitse bwakorwaga bugamije kwerekana amateka nyayo. U Rwanda rutangaza ko amateka yigishwa Abanyarwanda n’abanyeshuri by’umwihariko ari amateka abahamagarira kunga ubumwe buzira amacakubiri mu rwego rwo kongera kubaka igihugu cyashegeshwe na jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu w’1994

  • #107

    The UN & Rwanda: Abandoned to Genocide?22 (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 05:23)

    Bronwyn Adcock: So why did the UN fail Rwanda so badly? One explanation, says Colin Keating, is that Rwanda didn't lie within the national interest of any major powers. Therefore, it didn't matter.

    Colin Keating: There are some operations and some places where bad things happen, where no country has really got a major national interest. And you are then left with the situation that peace and security will only prevail in some parts of the world, and other parts of the world will not have the support which they're entitled to expect from the United Nations. There are some shades of that in the Rwanda situation, Rwanda really did not matter very much to any countries, and there was a sense that because the UN had got its fingers badly burnt in a number of other places, that Rwanda was just too much of a risk.

    Bronwyn Adcock: Observers of Rwanda now say the warning signs of a catastrophe are starting all over again. Arms are flooding into the region, and ethnicity is being increasingly used as a political ideology. At the end of last year, an International Commission of Inquiry came back to the Security Council with dire warnings, not just for Rwanda, but for the whole region. It concluded:

    Reader: The situation in the Great Lakes region is rapidly heading towards a catastrophe of incalculable consequences, which requires urgent, comprehensive and decisive measures on the part of the international community. The danger of a repetition of tragedy comparable to the Rwandan genocide of 1994 but on a sub-regional scale, cannot be ruled out.

  • #106

    The UN & Rwanda: Abandoned to Genocide?21 (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 05:21)

    Alison Des Forge: The people outside of that initial small circle of real fanatics, the large number of participants, I'm convinced, had to decide repeatedly, what kind of role they were going to play in this genocide, how far they were going to go. I think they had to get up in the morning and decide what they would commit themselves, and what they would permit their authorities to direct them to do. Some people would accept killing young men whom they could imagine might be soldiers in disguise, but would not kill infants or old women. Some people would kill lay people but they wouldn't kill clergy. People had different points where they defined what they would or would not do. It wasn't a spontaneous kind of once-and-for-all mechanical reaction, it was a human phenomenon, and in this very complex situation, the realisation that the directors of the genocide were supposed to be the legitimate authorities in the country, that played a role in people's decisions. Now did they really believe their authorities? Did they really think they were legitimate? At some level, maybe yes, and at some level, maybe no. But it gave them a cover, it gave them a way to hide from themselves the horrible-ness of what they were doing, and in this, the international community had a very important role to play. Because we allowed the charade to continue. We allowed the game to be played with this government presenting itself as a legitimate government on the world scene, and we said not a word. The representatives of Rwanda continue to sit at the table of the Security Council, the innermost Council devoted to establishing and maintaining peace in the world, and there they sat, from beginning to end. What was worse was the Council received on the 17th May, a delegation from Rwanda that included the head of the political party most blatantly carrying out the genocide, and these two men who had come from the capital of a country that was executing genocide, were allowed to sit at the table of the United Nations and to make a presentation in which they attempted to justify what they were doing. And when they were finished, eight of the 14 other nations at the table had nothing critical to say. But the end result of it was that the perpetrators of genocide could return home, having been to New York, and the propaganda radio could talk about their successful visit to the United Nations. The Rwandans who were facing daily decisions about what to do must certainly have taken into account this toleration, this acceptance on the part of the rest of the world.

  • #105

    The UN & Rwanda: Abandoned to Genocide?20 (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 05:15)

    The UN did provide a written submission of their version of events for the Belgian Inquiry. However their original submission was strongly criticised by Dallaire. In a confidential letter to the UN, Dallaire accused them of crucial omissions in their report, in particular, omissions regarding what the UN knew before the genocide began.

    General Dallaire wrote that he was concerned about:

    Reader: The apparent avoidance of any reference to our knowledge of the potential for ethnic killings.

    Bronwyn Adcock: In a thinly veiled threat, General Dallaire concluded his letter with:

    Reader: The decision to leave out this information could cause significant embarrassment to the UN, should my response ever be accessed or released to the media. I believe there are legal and moral obligations to not knowingly mislead or misinform anyone. I have fully advised the UN on these matters and should I be called to testify at any legal proceedings, I will answer questions as fully as possible.

    Bronwyn Adcock: Dallaire's suggested changes were partly included in the UN's final submission to the inquiry.

    Last year, General Dallaire was called as a witness before the International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda, though restrictions were placed on him by the UN. His evidence was stunning. In an emotional testimony, General Dallaire said all he needed was a well armed force of 5,000 men, and he could have stopped the genocide in a week. He described his experience as an unimaginable exercise in frustration. The experience has had a profound effect on General Dallaire.

    Alison Des Forge: He has talked about being suicidal, about needing psychiatric help to deal with the enormous burden that he feels as a result of this experience; he, like many people who have dealt with this tragedy, could probably say, as one diplomat said to me about the situation, 'Rwanda has seeped into my soul.'

    Bronwyn Adcock: Last year, Kofi Annan visited Rwanda for the first time since the genocide. He was met with hostility, the President and several other senior politicians boycotted a reception in his honour. Much of the animosity came after he said in a speech that the horror of the genocide came from within.

    Fred Eckhardt explains this view.

    Fred Eckhardt: Because we don't have an international SWAT team to send into a crisis situation like that, you have to say that a society's responsibilities start at home, that it was Rwandans who killed Rwandans, it wasn't the outside world.

  • #104

    The UN & Rwanda: Abandoned to Genocide?19 (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 05:13)

    Michael Hourigan: And I can tell you at the end of it, at the end of a year-and-a-half of effort, my team never received one document from the United Nations Department of Peacekeeping.

    Bronwyn Adcock: UN spokesperson Fred Eckhardt says there is a very good reason for this.

    Fred Eckhardt: Well for the same reason that anyone else would have difficulty: this documentation is really not just ours, we're keeping it on behalf of the governments who are the members of this organisation, and the people that we work for. Normally we don't make this documentation available to the public for something like 30 years.

    Bronwyn Adcock: With all due respect though, these are not members of the public, these are criminal investigators, who are hired by the United Nations to try and work out who committed the genocide.

    Fred Eckhardt: Yes I know, but you're talking about evidence that would be placed in the public domain, so the net effect is the same. We had to ask ourselves, well in the case of the tribunal obviously we want to co-operate with them to the fullest, we want them to succeed in convicting as many of these killers as they can. But at the same time we had a professional obligation to protect the confidentiality of our documents.

    Bronwyn Adcock: The UN has also prevented any of their staff testifying before any of the inquiries that have been held. This includes the UN Force Commander, General Romeo Dallaire, despite Dallaire saying he wants to be allowed to testify. Dallaire is a crucial figure in this story, he was in charge of the UN's operations in Rwanda, and was there before and during the genocide. He is also the man who wrote the January 11 warning.

  • #103

    The UN & Rwanda: Abandoned to Genocide?18 (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 05:12)

    Michael Hourigan: When we approached the United Nations to gather more of that type of information, the United Nations told us that it wasn't available, that they didn't have it, that if they had it, we could have it. I made a request of one of my senior investigators, Jim Lyons, an FBI investigator, who was going to New York on a duty trip, to go to the Department of Peacekeeping and make a specific request to gather all the military Intelligence Office intelligence reports.

    Jim Lyons: So I did travel to New York to get that information. I went to UN headquarters, I was treated actually like I had some kind of communicable disease.

    Bronwyn Adcock: In what way?

    Jim Lyons: Well, I was avoided, I was left hanging around for a day, where no-one would pay too much attention to me. But they finally agreed to give me the files, and I went through those files. It was supposed to include those daily situation reports, and well, we got some of the reports, but obviously there were some missing.

    Bronwyn Adcock: How do you know?

    Jim Lyons: Well there were days in the files when there were no reports, and we knew there were daily reports, and we knew there were usually two reports daily.

    Bronwyn Adcock: Did you ask to see all the files?

    Jim Lyons: I did, yes, more than once. And then when I left, I asked for copies of the reports that I read that I did want to have copies of, and I was told I was not able to copy anything, and that if I wanted copies, I should have Judge Goldstone who was the Chief Prosecutor at The Hague at the time, send a cable to Kofi Annan requesting copies, but I had to identify each report that I wanted in the file. And I did that, and the reports, even the ones I requested, were never received let alone the ones that I never saw.

  • #102

    The UN & Rwanda: Abandoned to Genocide?17 (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 05:10)

    Alain Destexhe: This is another fact which I cannot understand, is that in the light of all the information that the Secretariat had got for months before the genocide, it's not understandable that they didn't immediately conclude that a genocide was under way. So from the first day, from the 7th and the 8th April, the UN knew that large scale massacres were going on. And if you put that in relation with the information you had before, I mean you should have immediately concluded that this was a genocide. And then despite these kinds of warnings, despite the cable of 11th January, when the genocide actually started, nobody is using the word for a few weeks. How strange is that?

    Bronwyn Adcock: According to Alison Des Forge, no-one wanted to use the word because no-one wanted to be compelled to act according to the Genocide Convention, the Convention drawn up after the Nazi Holocaust when the world was still saying 'never again'.

    Alison Des Forge: Everyone understood that using the word would then create an expectation that those obligations that all of our governments had signed on for, that those obligations would in fact be met, and that they would act to stop that genocide.

    Bronwyn Adcock: The genocide in Rwanda only ended with the RPF successfully took over Kigali and gained control of the rest of the country. By this time around 800,000 people had been killed and more than a million refugees had fled the country.

    Five years on, and Alain Destexhe and the victims he represents, are lobbying for a full independent inquiry into the role of the UN in Rwanda. He believes there are still many questions unanswered.

    Alain Destexhe: We believe, I mean the victims of the genocide, myself and a few others, we believe that there is a need for an investigation inside the UN system, because we got access to the archives of the Defence and Foreign Minister in Belgium, the French Parliament did also an investigation, but really nobody knows exactly what happened inside the UN system.

    Bronwyn Adcock: The United Nations has consistently refused access to their files and blocked any attempts to investigate their actions in Rwanda. Michael Hourigan and Jim Lyons came up against this reluctance to be scrutinised when they tried to access the intelligence cables sent to the UN.

  • #101

    The UN & Rwanda: Abandoned to Genocide?16 (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 05:08)

    CRIES

    Reporter: In Rwanda itself, the atrocities continue, without regard for age, sex or innocence. One little boy and his sister are all that's left of a whole family. He is six years old; they tried to cut his head off.

    END ARCHIVES

    Bronwyn Adcock: When the genocide was unleashed on 7th April, many nations launched fast and efficient operations into Rwanda to rescue their foreign nationals. Within weeks, the Security Council was pulling out peacekeeping troops too. Only 250 stayed behind.

    Alison Des Forge.

    Alison Des Forge: They wanted to get the hell out of Rwanda. They wanted nothing to do with this problem. They wanted to remove themselves from it as far as they could. The initial reaction in the Security Council was complete and total withdrawal. Knowing full well, that that would condemn to death tens of thousands of people who were at that point dependent upon UN protection.

    Bronwyn Adcock: The slaughter of the first few weeks was almost unimaginable; thousands, sometimes tens of thousands of people were being killed every day. However it took the Security Council nearly one month to officially acknowledge that what was happening was in fact a genocide. Colin Keating:

    Colin Keating: I think there came a point where the testimony from the NGO community and from the media, made it quite clear that genocide was going on, there was no doubt about that. It was a question of how you described it in diplomatic language, which for us seemed rather absurd, to be arguing about the diplomatic language. It was actually better to condemn what was happening.

    Bronwyn Adcock: The Secretariat of the United Nations was also slow in acknowledging the reality of Rwanda. Several weeks into the genocide, the then Secretary-General of the UN, Boutros Boutros Ghali, described the killings as being started by 'unruly elements of the Presidential Guard'. Alain Destexhe:

  • #100

    The UN & Rwanda: Abandoned to Genocide?15 (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 05:06)

    Bronwyn Adcock: The tenuous nature of the UN presence in Rwanda, while known to the Rwandan Government, was not known by ordinary people in Kigali. Louise Mushikawabo says people felt safer because of the UN presence.

    Louise Mushikawabo: At that time, at least the people that I know, thought the threat of major violent movement, was not likely because of the presence of the UN. When I was there for two or three weeks, I saw UNAMIR troops basically every day; they were in downtown Kigali every day and different neighbourhoods. And there was a sense of, I guess, a false hope of reassurance for a lot of people who at that time were threatened enough that they could have fled the country, so a lot of people trusted and believed in the power of the United Nations at that time.

    MUSIC

    ARHIVES

    Newsreader: Tensions are high in the Central African Republics of Rwanda and Burundi today following the assassination of the leaders of both countries.

    Vox pop: Many atrocities have been enacted in the immediate vicinity of our house.

    Reporter: Altogether it's estimated that more than a million people have been forced from their homes by a campaign of butchery that shows no sign of ending.

    Reporter: UN observers were held back at gunpoint by these marauders and people in army uniforms while people were being hacked to death. And only after they had finished hacking the people were they allowed to go in and help the survivors.

  • #99

    The UN & Rwanda: Abandoned to Genocide?14 (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 05:04)

    Bronwyn Adcock: There was a massive reluctance from the United Nations to ever get involved in Rwanda in the first place. Peace-keeping in 1993 had become an unattractive prospect: 18 US peacekeepers had been killed on a mission in Somalia, and the costs of mounting a mission had risen dramatically. According to Alison Des Forge, these pressures had a negative effect on the way the UN approached Rwanda.

    Alison Des Forge: The initial force, the initial recommendation from the military experts was that the force should be 8,000 soldiers. They eventually reduced that to 5,000. But the US, as the leading force for economy at that point, was asking instead of 5,000 that the troops be limited to 500, which was in fact a ridiculous number. The compromise eventually put 2,500 soldiers in the field, but they were far short of what was needed, once the crisis developed into something other than a simple peacekeeping exercise.

    Bronwyn Adcock: Political pressure to close down the mission to Rwanda started not long after the troops were deployed. Within the Security Council, the major western powers were pushing for a withdrawal because the Rwandan Government and the RPF were not meeting their peace deadlines.

    The Hutu extremists knew about these discussions because by a twist of fate, one of the Members of the Council that year was Rwanda. Colin Keating thinks perhaps the interests of the big powers and the Hutu extremists inadvertently coincided. They both didn't want the UN in Rwanda.

    Colin Keating: I think the presence of the UN, with the benefit of hindsight, we can see now, was a nuisance, an irritant as far as Hutu extremists was concerned. It may well be that they were actually strategising to encourage the UN to leave, and that perhaps missing some of the deadlines in the peace process negotiations may well have been part of the strategy to encourage the UN to pack up its bags, declare it as a hopeless case, and for them to get on with whatever they intended to get on with.

  • #98

    The UN & Rwanda: Abandoned to Genocide?13 (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 05:03)

    Colin Keating: The country reports were fairly positive. They were saying the parties were genuinely committed to peace, that the UN peacekeeping mission would make a difference, and we should actually go along with it. Now once the UN force was there, once there was a special representative permanently on the ground, the reports tended to show procrastination, deadlines, milestones for completion of various steps in the peace process were being missed, but they were generally being put down to the inherent difficulties of the issues rather than lack of goodwill. And there was some reports of violence, but it tended to be characterised as banditry or robbery, rather than ethnic violence or a continuation of the fighting which had been part of the civil war that was previously going on.

    Bronwyn Adcock: Did the Security Council discuss the possibility of ethnic killings, of massacres, of organised violence?

    Colin Keating: No, that never came on to the agenda at all, until the actual events occurred.

    Bronwyn Adcock: Was there anything to indicate in terms of information coming in to the Security Council, that this was a possibility?

    Colin Keating: No, as I said before, I think really the information suggested that there was banditry, that there was ongoing sporadic fighting, but it was more in the character of skirmishes related to the civil war, rather than any suggestion that the civil population as a whole was at risk.

    Bronwyn Adcock: New Zealand wasn't the only member of the Security Council who was unaware of the true situation Rwanda. Spain's Ambassador on the Council at the time was Juan Antonio Yanez-Burneuvo. He's now surprised by the extent of information that was available before the genocide.

    Juan Antonio Yanez-Burneuvo: I'm very surprised that all this is known now, because I don't remember receiving any - not only within the Security Council, but also outside - I don't remember receiving any of that information until we were practically in the middle of everything. What I distinctly remember of those first weeks and first months of '94 is that the main thrust of the concern expressed by the Secretariat, by the Secretary-General, was about the delays in the implementation of the agreement, the delays by the parties in establishing a transitional government, and also related to that, the deterioration of the security situation especially in Kigali and around Kigali. But without, as I say, any inkling that there was preparation for a genocide or anything like that, no, not to that extent, no.

  • #97

    The UN & Rwanda: Abandoned to Genocide?12 (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 05:01)

    RTLM TRANSCRIPTS
    Reader: The proof that we will exterminate them is that they are only a single ethnic group. Just look at one person, their physique and their physical appearance, look at their cute little nose, and then break it.
    Finish them off, exterminate them, sweep them out of the country because there is no refuge, no refuge then!
    Bronwyn Adcock: By the end of 1993 the atmosphere in the capital, Kigali, was tense. December that year was Louise Mushikawabo's last Christmas with her family.
    Louise Mushikawabo: I went to Rwanda for Christmas in 1993, and that was about four months before the genocide, and I could clearly feel that something was deeply wrong. For example, many young people in the Kigali neighbourhoods, various Kigali neighbourhoods, were talking about training in secret camps outside of Kigali, and of course they would come back to their homes and tell their friends whether they be Hutu or Tutsis, who did not belong to those youth militia groups, about their activities, and that was very scary to me.
    Bronwyn Adcock: And did you know what they were training for? Did you have any suspicious?
    Louise Mushikawabo: Actually I had suspicious, although I did not fully know, I guess I underestimated the power of evil at that time. I knew people like my brother were in danger because he was the only Tutsi Cabinet member at that time; he was a prominent businessman, so he was a target. But I never thought it would extend to just about every Tutsi in the country, including babies and old people, and handicapped people. I never thought it would go that far. It's something that still amazes me today.
    Bronwyn Adcock: While preparations for the genocide gathered pace in Rwanda, the decision makers in New York remained apparently oblivious. Despite the clear warnings being provided, the UN Security Council continued to monitor the peace accords, ignoring the real problem.
    One of the members of the Council at the time was New Zealand. Their Ambassador on the Council, Colin Keating, says the official 'country reports' out of Rwanda were not alarming.

  • #96

    The UN & Rwanda: Abandoned to Genocide?11 (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 04:58)

    Bronwyn Adcock: There was also a report from a UN Special Rapporteur at this time, that concluded there was evidence of genocidal behaviour. This report was ignored.

    MUSIC

    Bronwyn Adcock: Violence persisted for the whole of 1993, despite a peace agreement between the Rwandan Government and the RPF. However, according to Alison Des Forge, events took a more dangerous turn towards the end of the year.

    Alison Des Forge: The blatant proclamation of an attempt to use ethnic violence to short-circuit the peace came at the beginning of November and early December. At that point the radio, which was known as RTLM, that radio began at the end of November, and early December, to talk very openly about organising both the slaughter of members of the political opposition and ethnic killing.

    Bronwyn Adcock: Radio Mille Colline, or RTLM, blasted out its message of hate in the months before the genocide. An ostensibly private radio station, it was however, connected to the Government. For months before the genocide, it told Hutus all over the country that the Tutsis wanted to take over, and it was a case of kill, or be killed. Once the genocide started, the radio was instrumental in the organisation. It named people to be killed, it broadcasted where Tutsis were hiding, and it encouraged people to go out and kill.

  • #95

    The UN & Rwanda: Abandoned to Genocide?10 (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 04:57)

    Early this century, European colonisers decided that based purely on physical appearance, Tutsis were superior to Hutus. Their finer features, smaller noses, and height, were thought to look more European. So the Belgian Administration issued identity cards, clearly marking someone as a Hutu or a Tutsi, then set up an administration that favoured Tutsis at the expense of Hutus. This created ethnic tension, where there was none before.

    When in 1990 a group of Tutsi exiles called the Rwandan Patriotic Front, invaded from Uganda, the Hutu government responded to the prospect of sharing power by exploiting the ethnic difference. Hutu extremism that was viciously anti-Tutsi flourished.

    Alison Des Forge is an historian and a consultant on Rwanda for the US-based Human Rights Watch.

    Alison Des Forge: I don't think that the intention was genocidal as such in 1990, but from 1990 to 1993, people were beginning to explore that idea, with a series of small-scale massacres, and from 1993 on, clearly a small group of people were determined to carry out a genocide. We had been investigating and reporting on these massacres, and I say small-scale because they involved hundreds rather than thousands of people. We had been working on that since 1991. In 1993 a group of international human rights organisations did a joint investigation of the situation, and at that point, we began to talk about acts of genocide.

  • #94

    The UN & Rwanda: Abandoned to Genocide?9 (lundi, 03 octobre 2011 04:54)

    Bronwyn Adcock: So do you know what happened to your report?
    Michael Hourigan: I believe it has been filed.
    Bronwyn Adcock: Michael Hourigan.
    Extensive evidence of clear warnings about the genocide has also been discovered by a Belgian Parliamentary Inquiry. The Inquiry found 19 documents that mentioned either plans for destabilisation, or the likelihood of large-scale massacres.
    Belgian Senator, Alain Destexhe.
    Alain Destexhe: We have established clearly that not only the Belgian authorities, but also the French and the Americans and the United Nations had very specific information at least three months in advance. I mean it was not only one piece of information, it was a whole set of evidence that a genocide was being under preparation. The cable of 11th January is only the last piece of evidence; there was a whole range of evidence which was there. What is just not understandable is that that cable was not analysed in light of all the other elements which were at the disposal of the UN and the Belgian authorities and a few others.
    Bronwyn Adcock: Before becoming a Senator, Alain Destexhe worked as a doctor in Rwanda; he left the country just one week before the genocide. He agitated successfully for the Belgian Inquiry and found, like Michael Hourigan, that informants were telling Belgian intelligence sources about plans to exterminate Tutsis.
    Alain Destexhe: The basic problem was that apparently nobody in the international community was in the mood to be prepared for the magnitude of a genocide.
    Bronwyn Adcock: Close observers of Rwanda say the roots of the genocide go back as far as 1990. However there is a crucial factor that goes back much further than that, and that is the origins of hatred.